CREATION OF THE UNIVERSE AND MAN ACCORDING TO THE QUR’AN

31 Jul

Possessing reason, idea, intelligence and conscience, man has always wondered and questioned about from where he has come, the manner of his advent, and the place he is destined to go. The past civilizations have legends (Altay, Enuma Elish legend etc.) regarding this issue. Scientists are engaged with researching and bring numerous theories about this issue. The opinion dominating most of the societies stems from the knowledge based on the Bible.

Allah gives the following explanation in the Qur’an:

Surah At-Tariq 5-7:

5Therefore, let man see from what he was formed; 6,7he was formed starting from an ejected liquid which emerges from between backbone and breastbone; “estrogen” and “testosterone”.

Surah Adh-Dhariyat 20-22:

20And without a doubt, there are many evidences/signs on the earth and within yourselves for those who will certainly believe.

22Your provision/the One Who provides for you and that which you are promised is in the heavens/universe. Do you still not see?

In these Ayat, our Rabb[1] wants people not to look at themselves as if they are looking at the mirror but to conduct researches in terms of their creation and scrutinize this issue in-depth. Such examinations will of course be conducted through scientific methods. Science will clarify this issue sooner or later. We believe that the outcome to be obtained by science will tally with the Qur’an.

We are presenting the first creation and development given in the Qur’an:

Allah first created death and then life.

Surah Al-Mulk 2:

2It is He Who formed death and life to test which of you is better in deeds. He is the One Who is the most exalted, the most powerful, the most honorable, the invincible/the subduer, the One Who removes the sins of His servants, does not punish them and has much forgiveness.

Surah Al-Mu’min 10-12:

10Surely, the infidels; those who consciously deny the divinity of Allah and the fact that He is Rabb will be called: “Indeed, the hatred of Allah is greater than your hatred for yourselves. Yet when you were invited to the faith, you disbelieved; you consciously denied the divinity of Allah and the fact that He is Rabb”.

11And the infidels will say: “O our Rabb! You took our life twice and gave us life twice. Now we have confessed our sins. Is there a way to exit?”.

12This is because of that: When you were invited to Allah as “the One and the Only”, you disbelieved. And when others were associated with Him, you believed. Now the judgement belongs to Allah Who is the most sublime and the grand.

Surah Al-Baqara 28:

28So, how do you disbelieve; consciously deny the divinity of Allah and the fact that He is Rabb? But, you were dead and He gave you life. Then, He will take your lives and resurrect you. Then, to Him you will be returned.

Creation of the earth and the heavens:

The universe was created in six phases.

Surah Al-A‘raf 54, Surah Yunus 3, Surah Hud 7, Surah Al-Furqan 59, Surah As-Sajdah 4, Surah Al-Hadid 4.

Surah Fussilat 9-12:

9Say: “Will you really conceal/disbelieve in the One Who formed the earth in two phases? And you attribute to Him equals! He is Rabb of all universes”.

10And He placed firmly set mountains in the earth. He made blessings therein. And He arranged the provisions in four phases equally/without distinction for those who look and ask.

11Then He established His dominion in the heavens/universe while it was smoke and said to it and the earth: “Come, willingly or unwillingly!”. And both of them said: “We have come willingly”.

12Then Allah made them in two phases as heavens and assigned the work of every heaven within it. We adorned the closest heavens/universe with lanterns and the protection. This is the arrangement of the One Who is the most exalted, the most powerful, the most honorable, the invincible/the subduer, the One Who precludes corruption best/makes incorruptible, knows very well.

Surah Hud 7:

7And it is Allah Who formed the heavens/universe and the earth in six steps to test which of you would do better deeds. Universe was water/liquid first; His throne was upon water/liquid; Allah was the One Who dominated, planned and implemented at that phase as well. – And if you say to them “Indeed, you will be resurrected after you die”, those infidels; those who have consciously denied the divinity of Allah and the fact that He is Rabb will definitely say to you: “This is nothing but an explicit magic/magician”.

The fact that the universe was in the form of a perfect fluid liquid in its very early period was demonstrated in 2010 through the CERN (ALICE) experiment. The temperature of this fluid was trillion centigrade degrees. The fact that the earth is still in the form of fluid exhibits such miracle.

Man was created from earth-water (matter):

Surah Al-Hijr 26-27:

26,27And surely, We formed seen and known creatures from the clay that sounds, from processable mud/a substance that is capable of many forms. And We had formed unseen creatures before from fire of a burning breeze that can pass through the narrowest hole/from energy that knows no boundaries.

Surah Sad 71, 72:

71,72When your Rabb once said to the forces in the universe, ”Indeed, I am going to form a human from clay. Submit to him right away when I have proportioned him and given him knowledge”.

Surah As-Saffat 11:

11Now ask them: “Are they stronger in formation or those whom We have formed?”. Indeed, We formed them from a sticky clay.

Surah Al-Mu’minun 12-16:

12-16And indeed, We formed human from a chosen clay/elements. Then We made him a drop of semen in a very firm lodging. Then We formed an embryo from that drop of semen. Then We formed a piece of flesh from that embryo. Then We formed bones from that piece of flesh. And at the end, We clothed those bones with flesh. Then We assembled him in another formation. How generous is Allah Who is the best of those who form! Then indeed, you will die after these. Then you will definitely be resurrected on the day of Qiyamat [Resurrection].

Surah Al-Anbiya 30:

30And have the infidels; those who consciously deny the divinity of Allah and the fact that He is Rabb not seen that heavens/universe and the earth were a joined entity and We separated them and formed every living thing from water/liquid? Do they still not believe despite this?

Surah Al-Furqan 54:

54And He is the One Who has formed a human from water/liquid and made lineage for him and blood relation by means of marriage. And your Rabb is competent over everything.

Surah Al-Mursalat 20:

20Did We not form you from a water/liquid disdained?

Surah At-Tariq 5-7:

5Therefore, let man see from what he was formed; 6,7he was formed starting from an ejected liquid which emerges from between backbone and breastbone; “estrogen” and “testosterone”.

Surah An-Nur 45:

45And Allah formed every living creature from water/liquid. Some of them move upon their bellies and some of them walk on two feet and some of them walk on four feet. Allah forms what He wills. No doubt that Allah is the One Who is the most competent over everything.

Surah Al-Hajj 5:

5O people! If you doubt that you will be resurrected after you die, know that We formed you from dust, and then from a drop of semen, and then from an embryo, and then a disfigured piece of flesh so We may make clear to you what you are. And We keep whom We will in the wombs for a specified term. Then We bring you out as a child so that then you may reach time of maturity. And some of you are reminded that which you did in the past and failed to do while being obliged to/lives of some of you are taken. And some of you are made to reach to miserable time of his life to have no knowledge after his previous knowledge. And then you see the earth barren; then it quivers, swells and grows plants of every beautiful kind when We send down water on it.

Surah Al-Mu’min 67, 68:

67He is the One Who formed you from a dust, then from a drop of semen and then from an embryo so you may reach an age of power, then get older and reach a predetermined term and use your reason as well. –Then He brings you out as a weak, little child. And some of you are taken of his life earlier; are reminded one by one what you did in the past and what you failed to do while being obliged to.- 68It is He Who makes you live and die. When He decrees a command, He only says to it, ‘Be!’ and it immediately is”.

Surah Al-Kahf 37-41:

37-41And his companion said to him while he was talking to him: “Do you not believe in the One Who formed you from dust and then a drop of water/liquid and made you a mature human? But as for me; He is my Rabb, Allah. And I do not associate anyone with my Rabb. Why did you not say, when you entered your vineyard: “What Allah wills, happens! There is no authority but Allah!” Although you see me less than you in wealth and children, maybe my Rabb will give me a better one than your vineyard. And He will send a calamity upon yours from the sky so your vineyard becomes a slippery ground. Or the water of your vineyard will be drawn into the ground so you will never be able to seek it”.

Surah Al-Qiyamat 36-39:

36Does man think that he will be left neglected? 37Was not he a drop of semen from a measured semen? 38Then he was an embryo and then He formed and proportioned him, 39and made two mates from it; male and female.

Today, coming of everyone to the world develops upon the same system at all times. First the lifeless matter (earth-water; that which is eaten and drunk, air which is breathed) transforms into a living being (ovum and semen) and then shaping continues in the form of cell morula, embryo, and bone generation. We also understand from the Ayat that the first life in the nature developed with the same system; first being a simple creature and then cell morula, embryo… etc. Transition from one stage to another did not take place in an instant but may be in millions of years. It has been realized as a developed man.

First creation was commenced with earth (matter).

Surah Al-Sajdah 7:

7He is the One Who made everything that He formed the best and began the formation of human from a clay/elements. 8Then He made his posterity from a semen, a simple water/liquid. 9Then He formed, shaped him and informed him. And He created ears, eyes and hearts for you. Yet how little you repay for the blessings you have been given!

The structure in which man was invaluable has continued for millions-billions of years (dehr).

Surah Al-Insan 1, 28:

1Has not come upon human a time of billions of years since he was not a thing to mention? Indeed, it has!

28It is We Who formed them. It is We Who made their forms strong. And when We will, We change them with their likenesses with a complete change.

First creation took place from a single self and its mate was created from it (asexual reproduction took place). Later on, came the separation between male and female and sexual reproduction.

Surah An-Nisa 1:

1O mankind! Enter under the guardianship of your Rabb Who formed you from a single self, then formed its mate from it and dispersed many men and women from both of them. And enter under the guardianship of Allah through Whom you ask one another and of the blood relation. Indeed, Allah is the One Who watches over you.

Surah Al-A‘raf 11:

11And indeed, it is We Who formed you, then proportioned you and said to the forces in the universe. ”Submit to Adam/human who was given knowledge, who received the revelation”; all of them except Iblis/thinking ability submitted right away; he did not become of those who submit.

Surah Al-A‘raf 189:

189He is the One who formed you from a single self and then made its mate to accompany it. When he covered and enshrouded her, then she carried a light burden. And she continued with this. When the wife got heavier, then they both invoked their Rabb: “If you give us a healthy child, indeed we will be among those who repay”.

Surah Az-Zumar 6:

6He formed you from a single self, then made its mate from it and sent down eight mates of livestock. He forms you in the womb of your mothers in three darkness, formation after formation. This is Allah, your Rabb only to Whom belongs the possession and the dominion. There is no deity except Him. Then how are you averted?

Surah Al-Mu’minun 78:

78And Allah is the One Who built the hearing, the sight and your hearts for you. O how less you repay for the blessings you are given!

Humans were not created in their present form at an instant but in stages and one of the initial stages of creation is PLANT process.

Surah Noah 14-20:

14Yet, indeed He formed you in stages. 15,16Have you not seen how Allah formed the heavens/universe in layers and made the moon a light among them and the sun a lamp? 17And Allah made you grow from the earth as a plant. 18Then He will return you back there and bring you forth with an extraction. 19,20And Allah has made the earth an expanse so you may go on wide roads from the earth”.

The stages in question are the earth… and finally present human being specified in the Ayat of Surah Al-Mu’minun 12-14, Surah Al-Mu’min 67, Surah Al-Hajj 5, Surah Al-Kahf 37, Surah Al-Qiyamat 36-38.

Man was first created and then proportioned. That is to say, proportioning took place subsequent to the first creation:

Surah Al-A‘la 1-5:

1-5Purify the sublime name of your Rabb Who formed and proportioned then measured and guided, Who brought out the pastures then made it a pitch-black flood remnant, thrown away.

Surah Al-Infitar 6-8:

6-8O mankind! What is it that deceives you concerning your Rabb, the most gracious, Who formed you, then proportioned you in a certain proportion, then balanced you, assembled you in whatever form He willed?

Surah Abasa 18-22:

18From what thing did Allah form him? 19A sperm! Allah formed and then proportioned, 20then He eased the righteous path for him by sending him a messenger, sending down a book while he was alive, 21then He took his life, made him to be put in his grave, 22then He will resurrect him when He wills.

Later on, hearing, seeing, and feeling (energy part; mental functions) were provided.

Surah As-Sajdah 7-9:

7He is the One Who made everything that He formed the best and began the formation of human from a clay/elements. 8Then He made his posterity from a semen, a simple water/liquid. 9Then He formed, shaped him and informed him. And He created ears, eyes and hearts for you. Yet how little you repay for the blessings you have been given!

Surah An-Nahl 78:

78And Allah brought you forth from the wombs of your mothers while you knew nothing and gave you hearing, sight and intellect so you may repay for the blessings you are given.

Surah Al-Mulk 23:

23Say: “He is the One Who built you, made for you ears, eyes and hearts. How less you repay for the blessings you have!”

Male and female are determined through semen.

Surah An-Najm 45, 46:

45,46No doubt that when Allah puts creation in plan, it is He Who forms the two mates; male and female from a drop of semen/sperm.

Primitive man reproduced and started to cause corruption and spill blood on earth.

And a warner/prophet was needed.

Surah Al-Baqara 30:

30And your Rabb once said to the forces of the nature: “Surely, I am the One to form a new creature in place of the former ones on the earth”. The forces of the nature said: “Will you form one of those who cause corruption, spill blood? But, we purify you with Your praise from all deficiencies and shout out that You are pure; purified from all evil and deficiencies”. Your Rabb said: “I surely know very well that which you do not know”.

Allah chooses His prophets from angels and humans:

Surah Al-Hajj 75, 76:

75,76Allah chooses messengers from among the harbinger Ayat and from among the mankind. Indeed, Allah is the One Who hears best, sees best, He knows that which is between their hands and behind them. And all matters will be returned only to Allah.

Allah chose Adam as a messenger.

Surah Ali-Imran 33, 34:

33,34Indeed, Allah favored Adam, Noah, family of Abraham and family of Imran –being from each other’s lineage– over the people of the time. And Allah is the One Who hears best, knows best.

Allah informed Adam, He sent him revelations.

Surah Al-Baqara 31-33:

31And your Rabb taught Adam all those names. Then He presented them to the forces of the nature and said: “Now, inform Me of the names of those, if you are truthful ones”.

32And the forces of the nature said: “Purified You are from all deficiencies! We know nothing but what You have taught us. Surely, You are the One Who knows best, the One Who is the best law maker”.

33And your Rabb said: “O Adam! Inform them of their names”. And when Adam informed them of their names, your Rabb said: “Have I not told you! Surely, I know the unseen, the unheard, the unfelt, the past and the future of the heavens/universe and the earth. And I know what you disclose and what you conceal”.

Surah Al-Hijr 28-29:

28,29And your Rabb once said to the forces in the universe: “I will form a human being from dry clay, formed/processed mud. And when I have proportioned him and given him knowledge, submit to him at once”.

Surah Sad 71,72:

71,72When your Rabb once said to the forces in the universe, ”Indeed, I am going to form a human from clay. Submit to him right away when I have proportioned him and given him knowledge”.

Surah Al-Sajdah 7-9:

7He is the One Who made everything that He formed the best and began the formation of human from a clay/elements. 8Then He made his posterity from a semen, a simple water/liquid. 9Then He formed, shaped him and informed him. And He created ears, eyes and hearts for you. Yet how little you repay for the blessings you have been given!

Soul

The concept of soul has been in the field of interests of many believing or non-believing, Muslim or non-Muslim persons so far and hundreds of books regarding soul were written by many people who were ignorant or scholarly. In these works, generally following issues were handled: What is soul? How many are the souls? Where are the souls? Are soul and nefs [self] same? Is soul an object, a creature, energy, cosmic consciousness, angel, the essence of the entities? Is soul transparent, crystal and fair-sex? Has soul or body been created first? Does soul die? Does soul turn back to the body in the grave? Do the souls of the living people meet those of the dead people? Has everything been made of soul? Is it soul that ensures life, movement, and discerning? Are there varieties of soul like humanly, bestial, and vegetal? Is it possible through a matured soul to see future, prophesy, and get out of time and space?

In addition to all these, attempts were made to explain the issues in these works regarding soul, such as necromancy, telepathy, mediumship, yoga, accurate dream, wizardry, magic, and reincarnation [transmigration of the soul].

Humanity has pursued these issues since the very early ages and many ideas and understandings emerged, which were not confirmed by the Wahy [Revelation] and not supported by the modern science of psychology in the period in which the science of psychology had not yet developed and theorized. One of the most manifest examples of mental labor that took place outside the control of the Wahy was the Ancient Greek Philosophy that was very effective in its own period and the slips of mind of this non-Wahy philosophy within the mysterious labyrinths of the mind impressed many Muslims within the period that evolved through the translation movements in the middle of VIII AD. Hence, soul and the issues regarding soul, which constitute one of the universal issues of wonder, entered the areas of interest of the Islamic world as well. Some Muslim thinkers purportedly Islamized the Ancient Greek and Latin acceptances and presented them as Islamic knowledge in their books and wrote hundreds of pamphlets and volumes of books full of needless thoughts regarding soul content and diversities. The most serious work written in this regard is “Kitabu’r-Ruh” written by Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya [1299-1351, Hijri 691-751]. In addition, Imam Gazalî presented the knowledge he compiled from the Ancient Greek Philosophy in various works of him. However, all of them are quite far away from the concept of soul expressed in the Qur’an. As a result, a serious Qur’an-based work has not been conducted in this regard so far and, as the phrase goes, air has been beaten, for centuries. However, the knowledge in these books of the authors with titles that has express prestige has been acknowledged as both accurate and Islamic. But the issue that must actually be regretted is that none of the “interpretation” books that have been written for one thousand four hundred years is based on the Qur’an and always “Rumor Interpretation” was brought to the foreground in these books. It is a very sad issue for the Muslims that the Qur’an, which is express and elaborate in all aspects, was victimized by a set of groundless rumors and Israelite resources. So that, multiplicity and differences of the rumors confused the minds a lot and both our basic concepts and our knowledge in terms of beliefs and deeds were shaped many times in line with these rumors.

Back to the issue of “soul”, it is necessary to state first that searching for and poring over the issue of “soul” among the subjects stated above is the subject of psychology, not religion. It is certain that, as psychology advances, the covert words of the Qur’an in this field will be interpreted. Some primitive ideas that are asserted and transformed into book form by some people with select titles, despite lack of compliance with the Qur’an and science, have the nature that; far from contributing to the interpretation of the covert issues; the issues become more and more deadlocked that will cause occurrence of conflicts. Hence, instead of analyzing and providing such ideas, the method of explaining the concept of “soul” in the Qur’an by way of the Qur’an as well. Our objective is to endeavor to understand and expound the Qur’an not through the indistinct rumors but through the internal means of the Qur’an.

Actual meaning of the word “soul” is “life”. The word is a word that expresses “countenance”; that is to say it is a word that can be used in numerous meanings that express reality and metaphor.

In encyclopedic sense, soul is described as “In general, nonmaterial dimension or essence of an entity”. [Ana Britannica, volume: 26, p: 383]. With this, “self” that leaves the body temporarily during sleep and permanently in death; that is to say, consciousness, the main function in the brain, was meant.

The word “soul” was accepted synonymous with the concepts of “spiritual conceit” and “life” in compliance with both the dictionary and encyclopedia-based meanings we have stated above. The word “soul” that means “vitality, emotion” in broad sense, and “character”, has also meaning that expresses the essence and most important and most decisive point of something.

Traditional religious terminological meaning of the word “soul” is defined in a very broad expression as “The liveness which is given to man through blowing by Allah after creating his physical existence”.

Use of the word “soul” in the Qur’an

The word “soul” was used in the Qur’an as “Divine breeze, Wahy [revelation]/knowledge”. If the fact that Wahy gives life to the heart which is considered to be dead due to lack of knowledge, that the function of life in the body is similar to what Wahy does for the humanity; and that it protects the individuals and the society from corruption thanks to this function, is taken into account, it might appear that there is parallelism between the lexical, encyclopedic, and religious terminological meanings of the word “soul” with the meaning given in the Qur’an. However, when the Ayat where the word is used are examined, it is understood that such parallelism is not about what “soul” is but about the impacts of it on humans.

The “soul” [divine breeze, revelation] mentioned in the Qur’an is the thing that provides only those people and societies who deliberately and willingly own that soul and apply it into their lives with meaning vitality and that safeguards them from corruption. But it is never a magic breath that represents the vitality outside death and that covers all kinds of infamy:

Surah Al-Isra 85:

85And they ask you about the Wahy. Say: “Wahy [Revelation] is of the affair of my Rabb. And you have been given nothing except a little knowledge”.

Surah Al-Mu’min 15:

15He is the One Who raises the degrees, the owner of the greatest throne/position: He places the revelation which is from His own command/His own affair to whomever He wills of His servants to warn about the day of meeting.

In the second Ayah, descent of soul is expressed with the word of “القائ ilka [leave, place]. Hence, for the revelations sent to Adam [Surah Al-Baqara 37] and for the descent of the Qur’an, the verb of “ilka” was used instead of “ وحى vahy” or “ انزال inzal”. [Surah An-Naml 6].

If the passage that starts in Ayah 85 of the Surah Al-Isra and continues toward the Ayah 93 is evaluated in integrity, it is seen that the soul taken as a subject matter here is not the soul of a human or any living being but the “Wahy”. However, as also stated in the Ayah 85 of the Surah Al-Isra, the information provided to humans in terms of soul [regarding the form and content of Wahy] is really hardly any. Therefore, it must be satisfied with the information given in this regard and it should not be attempted to produce information in these issues through baseless and unwarranted opinions.

In many of the Ayat in which it was specified that soul was sent down, it is also specified that soul is at the same time an emr (command) of our Rabb. The word of “امر emr”, which is used as an “order” in daily language in general, is used in the Qur’an as “affair [being]”. Singular form of the word is mentioned 153 times in the Qur’an. The word of “umur [actions]”, plural of the word, takes place in 13 Ayat including Ayah 97 of the Surah Hud and Ayah 128 of the Surah Ali-Imran. In the light of this information, what we should understand from the expression of “We have revealed a soul from our command” is the work of revealing a soul, one of Allah’s works, is made by Him.

As specified in the Surah An-Najm, “soul” is one of Allah’s works and sending down of a soul belongs only to Him.

Why and to Whom Soul/Wahy is Sent Down?

Surah Ash-Shura 52, 53:

52,53Thus We have revealed to you the soul/the Qur’an which is of Our own command/affair. You did not know what the book was, what faith was. But We made it a light/soul with which We guide from whomever We will of Our servants. Without a doubt, you also guide to a straight path; the path of Allah for Whom those in the heavens/universe and on the earth are. So open your eyes! All matters return only to Allah.

Surah Al-Mujadila 22:

22You will not find a people who believe in Allah and the day of Akhirat [Afterlife] having a connection of affection with those who strive to oppose Allah and His Messenger. Even if they are their fathers, children, brothers, relatives. They are the ones whose hearts Allah has decreed the faith and whom He has supported with the Wahy [Revelation] from Himself. And Allah will admit them into the gardens of Jannah [Heaven/Paradise] underneath of which rivers flow as the ones who will abide therein eternally. Allah is pleased with them and they are pleased with Him. Those are the party of Allah. Open your eyes! The party of Allah are the ones who will reach success.

Surah Ash-Shu’ara 192-196:

192And surely, this clear book is sent down by Rabb of all universes.

193-195The Trustworthy Soul [divine messages, trustworthy knowledge] descended into your heart in an explicit Arabic language so you may be of those warners with that explicit book. 196And indeed, the Trustworthy Soul [divine messages, trustworthy knowledge] was certainly in the books of those before you.

When sufficiently contemplated on these Ayat, it is understood that the concept of “ روح soul” means “original [reliable] knowledge” because it is specified in Ayah 22 of the Surah Al-Mujadila expressly that all the believers are empowered and supported with the reliable and sound knowledge [soul] from Allah. In the Ayah 193 of the Surah Ash-Shu’ara, it is used with the propositional phrase of “er-Ruhu al-Amin” and the fact that such knowledge [soul] is the “most reliable and most beneficial knowledge”. It is wrong that the expression of “er-Ruhu al-Amin” stated in the Ayah 193 of the Surah Ash-Shu’ara is construed as Gabriel and that, as in many interpretations, the Ayah is translated as “It was brought down by Ruhu al-Amin [Gabriel]”. It is because giving a meaning to “ نزل nezele” intransitive verb in the Ayah as if it was transitive is above all contrary to the literal meaning of the Ayah. Moreover, such translation contradicts with the Ayah 192 of the same Surah, which specifies that the Qur’an was sent down by Allah, the Rabb of all universes. Details regarding the expressions of Ruhullah, Ruhu al-Kudus, and er-Ruhu al-Amin will be provided in the Surah Mary if Allah wills.

 

Blowing of the soul

Surah Sad 71, 72:

71,72When your Rabb once said to the forces in the universe, ”Indeed, I am going to form a human from clay. Submit to him right away when I have proportioned him and given him knowledge”.

Surah Al-Hijr 28-29:

28,29And your Rabb once said to the forces in the universe: “I will form a human being from dry clay, formed/processed mud. And when I have proportioned him and given him knowledge, submit to him at once”.                                                                

Surah Al-Sajdah 7-9:

7He is the One Who made everything that He formed the best and began the formation of human from a clay/elements. 8Then He made his posterity from a semen, a simple water/liquid. 9Then He formed, shaped him and informed him. And He created ears, eyes and hearts for you. Yet how little you repay for the blessings you have been given!

As it is known that Allah does not blow in a real sense, it is immediately understandable that the expression “blow” is a metaphor. In metaphoric sense, “blow” means giving a little amount of a thing to others. In this case, the expression of “blowing of soul” means “providing very little amount of knowledge; making someone smell the knowledge”. Hence, in the Ayah 85 of the Surah Al-Isra, this issue was expressly specified by saying, “Say: “Wahy [Revelation] is of the affair of my Rabb. And you have been given nothing except a little knowledge”.

In regards to what is meant by blowing soul into Adam, Qur’an explains this fact as well:

Surah Al-Baqara 30-34:

30And your Rabb once said to the forces of the nature: “Surely, I am the One to form a new creature in place of the former ones on the earth”. The forces of the nature said: “Will you form one of those who cause corruption, spill blood? But, we purify you with Your praise from all deficiencies and shout out that You are pure; purified from all evil and deficiencies”. Your Rabb said: “I surely know very well that which you do not know”.

31And your Rabb taught Adam all those names. Then He presented them to the forces of the nature and said: “Now, inform Me of the names of those, if you are truthful ones”.

32And the forces of the nature said: “Purified You are from all deficiencies! We know nothing but what You have taught us. Surely, You are the One Who knows best, the One Who is the best law maker”.

33And your Rabb said: “O Adam! Inform them of their names”. And when Adam informed them of their names, your Rabb said: “Have I not told you! Surely, I know the unseen, the unheard, the unfelt, the past and the future of the heavens/universe and the earth. And I know what you disclose and what you conceal”.

34And when We said to the forces in the nature: “Submit to Adam” and forces in the nature but Iblis/thinking ability submitted immediately. Iblis refused, acted arrogantly. And he was among those who consciously denied everything.

If attention is paid, submission of the angels according to Ayah 72 of the Surah Sad 29 of Surah Al-Hijr is subsequent to blow of soul to Adam by taking him through some certain phases [bringing him to the intended proportion] and giving him the final shape. In the Ayat 30-34 of the Surah Al-Baqara, the phase prior to the submission of angels to Adam was explained as “Informing of Adam and comparison of his knowledge with the angels”. The expression of “blowing of soul” used in the Surat Sad and Al-Hijr was replaced in the Surah Al-Baqara with “informing with knowledge” and it was explained that the expression of “blowing of soul” means “informing with knowledge”.

The evidence that what is meant by the expression of “blowing of soul” is that the knowledge provided to Adam is only very little is the Ayah 85 of the Surah Al-Isra. However, it must be specified forthwith that the scarcity of the knowledge given to Adam at a very little level is in proportion to the endless knowledge of our Rabb. Endless knowledge and wisdom of Supreme Allah are underlined in many Ayat in the Qur’an:

Surah Al-Kahf 109:

109Say: “If the sea was ink for the words of my Rabb, the sea would deplete before the words of my Rabb end, even if we brought as much of it again”.

Surah Luqman 27:

27And surely if whatever trees on the earth were pens and the sea, added by seven more seas after it, was its ink, words of Allah would not be depleted. Indeed, Allah is the One Who is the most exalted, the most powerful, the most honorable, the invincible/the subduer, the best law maker, the One Who precludes corruption best/makes incorruptible.

As the knowledge of Allah is endless like this, the total of the Wahy knowledge He sent to all his prophets would be very little.

As a result, angels submitted not to an ordinary man but to Adam to whom soul was blown [to whom knowledge was given with little information compared with the endless knowledge of our Rabb].

It was stated in the Qur’an that soul was blown to Mary as well:

Surah Al-Anbiya 91:

91And that woman who meticulously guarded her chastity; We informed her with our reliable knowledge. We made her and her son an evidence/a sign for the mankind.

Surah At-Tahrim 12:

12And Allah has presented the example of Mary, daughter of Imran, who guarded her chastity like a fortress. We informed her but a little with Our Wahy [Revelation]. And she confirmed and implemented the words and books of her Rabb and she was of those who show respect constantly.

Surah An-Nisa 171:

171O People of the Book! Do not transgress in your religion. And do not say about Allah that which is not true. Jesus the Messiah, son of Mary, is only a messenger of Allah and His word directed/bestowed to Mary and a soul from Him; he was a person born by revelation [Wahy]. Then, believe in Allah and His messengers. And do not say, “Three”. Desist; it is better for you. Allah is the One and Only God. Purified is He from that there should be a child for Him. That which is in the heavens/universe and on the earth belongs only to Him. Allah is sufficient as the “One Who arranges all creatures pursuant to a schedule and implements this schedule by supporting, maintaining it”.

It is understood from these Ayat that Mary was granted some special knowledge. But the details of this event must be learned from the related passages given in the Surat of Ali-Imran, Mary, and Al-Anbiya along with the Ayat explaining the situation of Zachariah within the integrity of the passage in the Qur’an because, that Zachariah who was an old man and his sterile wife had a child and that Mary gave a birth to a child took place in the periods which followed one another.

The expression of “blowing of soul” stated in the first two Ayat above is explained in An-Nisa 171 as “ القائ ilka [delivery, place]”. As it is now known that the expression of “blowing of soul” means “informing with little knowledge”, it is understood that the soul specified to be blown into Mary is not a physical blow into her womb [uterus] for her to be pregnant but the knowledge granted to her when she was in the temple under the protection of Zachariah. According to the Qur’an, same type of knowledge was given previously to Zachariah, then his wife who was both old and sterile, gave birth to John thanks to such knowledge. Subsequently, Zachariah who was assigned to deliver this divine knowledge/message to Mary carried out his duty as the messenger of Allah and demonstrated John who was born as a “well and sound” person thanks to this knowledge, as an evidence regarding the accurateness of the divine knowledge.

Adam received some words (revelations) from his Rabb.

Surah Al-Baqara 37:

37-39Then, Adam received some words from his Rabb/was revealed.

Surah An-Naml 6:

6Indeed, this Qur’an is being imposed in you by Allah, the One Who is law maker and the One Who knows best.

And now Adam is a Prophet too. He would rule in justice among people. He would save people from their passions and prevent intrigue and bloodshed.

Now the angels would submit to Adam who was informed and soul-blown (received the little knowledge); al the powers of nature would submit to him.

Except Iblis/thinking ability …

And ADAM …

Adam and his wife would inhabit in paradise (in a green, watery, and fertile region).

Surah Al-Baqara 35:

35And We said: “O Adam! You and your wife; dwell in green and well-watered place, enjoy its blessings in abundance from wherever you will but do not approach that tangled thing; do not fall for wealth/gold-silver or you will be among those who treat unjustly to their own selves”

Satan (Iblis) would deceive them.

They would violate what is prohibited for them.

Surah Al-A’raf 20-22:

20Then Iblis whispered to them to show them their evil which was concealed from them. And said: “Your Rabb banned you from/forbade you of this tangled thing, which is the source of dispute; wealth and property just to make you angels/creature without free will or eternal/undeveloped entities; and not for any other reason”. 21And he sworn/provided evidences to them, saying “Truly I am of the advisers”. 22Thus he deceived them and made them fall. When they tasted that tangled thing, which is the source of conflict; wealth and property, their greed and ambitions surged and started to pile up wealth and property. Then their Rabb called on them: “Have I not forbidden you to fall for wealth and property and said to you that “This satan is definitely an explicit enemy to you”?

Surah Ta-Ha 120-121:

120Eventually, satan whispered to him. He said: “O Adam! Should I guide you to the tree of eternity and to the wealth/dynasty that does not get old/collapse?.

121Then they both became fond of wealth-property, gold. Then their evil became manifest to each other. Then they started to pile against their own good by being enslaved by their desires even though they knew what they were doing was an evil deed. Adam disobeyed his Rabb so he confused/transgressed.

They would lose their beautiful land.

Surah Al-Baqara 36:

36Thereafter, Satan; Iblis/thinking ability slipped them out of there, took them out from the environment they were in. And We said: “Descend, being enemies to each other, there will be a place of settlement and an enjoyment for you until a certain time”.

Surah Al-A‘raf 24:

24Allah said: “Descend from there being enemy to each other, and for you on the earth is a settlement and enjoyment until a time”.

And Adam received some words (revelations) from his Rabb. And he repented. There are many rumors regarding what these words are. We learn these from the Qur’an. No other knowledge was given. What are mentioned in the hearsays are baseless.

Surah Al-Baqara 35,36:

35And We said: “O Adam! You and your wife; dwell in green and well-watered place, enjoy its blessings in abundance from wherever you will but do not approach that tangled thing; do not fall for wealth/gold-silver or you will be among those who treat unjustly to their own selves”

36Thereafter, Satan; Iblis/thinking ability slipped them out of there, took them out from the environment they were in. And We said: “Descend, being enemies to each other, there will be a place of settlement and an enjoyment for you until a certain time”.

Surah Al-A‘raf 19, 22, 24:

19And said: “O Adam/the one who was given knowledge, who received the revelation! You and your wife dwell in green, lush gardens/paradise, eat from wherever you will and do not get closer to that tangled thing which is the source of dispute; do not fall for property and wealth, or you will be of those who do wrong, act against their own good”.

22Thus he deceived them and made them fall. When they tasted that tangled thing, which is the source of conflict; wealth and property, their greed and ambitions surged and started to pile up wealth and property. Then their Rabb called on them: “Have I not forbidden you to fall for wealth and property and said to you that “This satan is definitely an explicit enemy to you”?

24Allah said: “Descend from there being enemy to each other, and for you on the earth is a settlement and enjoyment until a time”.

Surah Ta-Ha 117-119, 123:

117-119Then We said: “O Adam! Surely, Iblis is enemy to you and your wife. Do not let him lead you out of green, lush gardens/paradise, or you will be devastated. That you will not be in hunger nor naked is in green, lush gardens/paradise. And you will not get thirsty nor stay under the heat of the sun there”.

120Eventually, satan whispered to him. He said: “O Adam! Should I guide you to the tree of eternity and to the wealth/dynasty that does not get old/collapse?”.

121Then they both became fond of wealth-property, gold. Then their evil became manifest to each other. Then they started to pile against their own good by being enslaved by their desires even though they knew what they were doing was an evil deed. Adam disobeyed his Rabb so he confused/transgressed.

122Then his Rabb chose him and accepted his repentance and guided him to the righteous path.

123Allah said to both of them: “Descend from there, being enemies to each other. And whoever follows My guidance when a guidance comes to you from Me, then he will not go astray and he will not become unhappy”.

Initial information regarding Adam is given in the Ayat 11-25 in the Surah Al-A‘raf which is the Surah 39:

Surah Al-A‘raf 11-25:

11And indeed, it is We Who formed you, then proportioned you and said to the forces in the universe, ”Submit to Adam/human who was given knowledge, who received the revelation”; all of them except Iblis/thinking ability submitted right away; he did not become of those who submit.

12Allah said: “What did prevent you from submitting when I commanded you to do so? Iblis said: “I am better than him. You formed me from fire/energy, and You formed him from clay/substance”.

13Allah said: “Then descent from there immediately, it is not for you to be arrogant there, get out now, you truly are of the disgraced”.

14Iblis said: “Give me respite until the day they will be resurrected”.

15Allah said: “Then you are of those who are given respite”.

16,17Iblis said: “Then because You put me in transgression, I will sit on Your straight path, and then I will approach them from their front, from their back, right and left and You will not find many of them as the ones who repay for the blessings they are given”.

18Allah said: “Now, get out of there, being expelled and disgraced. Whoever among them follows you, indeed I will fill Jahannah [Hell] with all of you.” 19And said: “O Adam/the one who was given knowledge, who received the revelation! You and your wife dwell in green, lush gardens/paradise, eat from wherever you will and do not get closer to that tangled thing which is the source of dispute; do not fall for property and wealth, or you will be of those who do wrong, act against their own good.”

20Then Iblis whispered to them to show them their evil which was concealed from them. And said: “Your Rabb banned you from/forbade you of this tangled thing, which is the source of dispute; wealth and property just to make you angels/creature without free will or eternal/undeveloped entities; and not for any other reason”. 21And he sworn/provided evidences to them, saying “Truly I am of the advisers”. 22Thus he deceived them and made them fall. When they tasted that tangled thing, which is the source of conflict; wealth and property, their greed and ambitions surged and started to pile up wealth and property. Then their Rabb called on them: “Have I not forbidden you to fall for wealth and property and said to you that “This satan is definitely an explicit enemy to you”?

23Then they both said: “O our Rabb! We have treated ourselves unjustly and if you do not forgive us and have mercy upon us, we will definitely be among the losers!”

24Allah said: “Descend from there being enemy to each other, and for you on the earth is a settlement and enjoyment until a time”.

25Allah said: “You will live there, die there and then will be brought forth from there”.

Then in Surah Ta-Ha, Surah 45, in the Ayat 115-123.

Then in Surah 54, Surah Al-Hijr, in Ayat 26-44:

Surah Al-Hijr 26-44:

26,27And surely, We formed seen and known creatures from the clay that sounds, from processable mud/a substance that is capable of many forms. And We had formed unseen creatures before from fire of a burning breeze that can pass through the narrowest hole/from energy that knows no boundaries.

28,29And your Rabb once said to the forces in the universe: “I will form a human being from dry clay, formed/processed mud. And when I have proportioned him and given him knowledge, submit to him at once”.

30,31Then all angels/forces in the universe except Iblis/thinking ability submitted. He refused to be with those which submitted and did not do.

32Allah said: “O Iblis! What is the matter with you that you are not with those which submit?”.

33Iblis said as an answer: “I have not been formed to submit to a human that You have formed from a dry clay, formed/processable mud”.

34,35Allah said: “Then get out of there! You are now indeed the one who is expelled, ruined and the curse is upon only you until the day of Religion”.

36Iblis said: “My Rabb! Then let me be against You/give me respite until the day they will be resurrected!”.

37,38Allah said: “Then you are definitely of those who will be against Me/given respite until the day of the time which is known”.

39,40Iblis said: “My Rabb! Because of the reason that You have created me to lead the people astray, I will indeed make everything on the earth attractive to them and I will indeed lead all of them astray except for your purified servants!”.

41-44Allah said: “This is a straight path that I have taken upon Me. You have no compelling power over my servants except for those who follow you of the ones who go astray. Surely, the promised place to all of them is Jahannah [Hell]. There are seven gates for it. For each of those gates, a part of them is assigned”.

Then in Surah 87, Surah Al-Baqara, in Ayat 30-37:

Surah Al-Baqara 30-39:

30And your Rabb once said to the forces of the nature: “Surely, I am the One to form a new creature in place of the former ones on the earth”. The forces of the nature said: “Will you form one of those who cause corruption, spill blood? But, we purify you with Your praise from all deficiencies and shout out that You are pure; purified from all evil and deficiencies”. Your Rabb said: “I surely know very well that which you do not know”.

31And your Rabb taught Adam all those names. Then He presented them to the forces of the nature and said: “Now, inform Me of the names of those, if you are truthful ones”.

32And the forces of the nature said: “Purified You are from all deficiencies! We know nothing but what You have taught us. Surely, You are the One Who knows best, the One Who is the best law maker”.

33And your Rabb said: “O Adam! Inform them of their names”. And when Adam informed them of their names, your Rabb said: “Have I not told you! Surely, I know the unseen, the unheard, the unfelt, the past and the future of the heavens/universe and the earth. And I know what you disclose and what you conceal”.

34And when We said to the forces in the nature: “Submit to Adam” and forces in the nature but Iblis/thinking ability submitted immediately. Iblis refused, acted arrogantly. And he was among those who consciously denied everything.

35And We said: “O Adam! You and your wife; dwell in green and well-watered place, enjoy its blessings in abundance from wherever you will but do not approach that complex thing; do not covet for wealth/gold-silver or you will be among those who treat unjustly to their own selves”

36Thereafter, Satan; Iblis/thinking ability slipped them out of there, took them out from the environment they were in. And We said: “Descend, being enemies to each other, there will be a place of settlement and an enjoyment for you until a certain time”.’

37-39Then, Adam received some words from his Rabb/was revealed; We said: “Descend! All of you. When a guidance comes to you from Me, whoever follows My guidance, there will be no fear for them; they will not grieve either. And as for those who have disbelieved; consciously denied the divinity of Allah and the fact that He is Rabb; they are the companions of the fire. They will abide there eternally”. Then, Allah accepted his repentance. Surely, He is the One Who accepts the repentance of His servants, gives many opportunities to repent; the One Who is very merciful.

The issue will be understood thoroughly through this arrangement.

The passages about Adam, the prostration of the Angels, and imposition of the Iblis in the Surat of Al-Isra and Al-Kahf focus on the Iblis.

 

BASHAR – INSAN-ADAM

BASHAR

“Bashar” means “Outside of skin, outer skin, cuticle (epidermis), hairless seen part of the skin; coming into sight and appearance of something” (The dictionaries of Lisan al-Arab, Taj al-Arus, Mufredat etc.).

The reason for the fact that humans are referred as bashar is because they do not have things like fleece and hair on them unlike animals, and their skin is visible as is.

From this root, “bashir” means the one with beautiful face; harbinger; and “besharah” means beauty.

As can be understood from the lexical meaning, the expression of “bashar” is used in relation to humans, their material look and appearance (their standing on two feet, their skin that is not like the fleece of sheep or goats etc). If attention is paid, it is understood that in the Qur’an (Surah Al-Furqan 54, Surah Al-Hijr 28-29 and Surah Sad 71) such features of bashar are the subject matters.

Those who do not accept Akhirat [Afterlife] and intervention of Allah with the societies (His sending of messengers, sending down the books) consider the entity called human only through its being a bashar. We see this in the past understandings as in today:

Surah Al-Mudaththir 24-25, Surah Al-Qamar 24, Surah At-Taghabun 6, Surah Al-Kahf 110, Surah Joseph 31.

In sum, the word of “bashar” expresses a person as an ordinary living being, its physical structure, and its undeveloped form. All the humans on earth are bashar without exception. The word of “bashar” is stated 36 times in the Qur’an.

INSAN

Ins, Uns, Insan

The word of “insan” is in the “fi’liyan” form and derived from the word of “ens”, whose actual form is “insiyan”.

Its lexical meaning is “The thing that can be felt with five senses, that is known, seen, familiar, relatable, and that does not get lost and is apparent at all times”.[2]

The reason for giving it as a name only to human beings despite the fact that the meaning of the word is this and that it covers all the visible entities in the universe is that it also bears the “meaning of “unsiyat”. When we consider the “uns” version, which is used as “closeness, socializing” of the word of “ins”, the meaning that “a human is a social entity that has closeness to and socializes with his/her acquaintances” comes to the surface. Human needs unsiyat due to its creation. That is to say a person is a social entity and cannot do without establishing relations with other entities, specifically with other persons.

While this is the lexical meaning of the word of “insan”, its expression in the Qur’an is as follows:

Surah Ar-Rahman 1-4:

1Rahman [Allah; The One Who is Most Merciful Towards His Creations on the Earth] taught how to recite and teach the Qur’an, created man, taught him the good and the evil, and how to make distinction between them.

The subject matter here is not the first creation of man but its promotion from being an animal to being a human. Hence, it was said that “Every animal is born as an animal but a human is not born as a human; he humanizes later on”. Therefore, according to this Ayah, those people who do not learn the Qur’an, who fail to learn it and teach it, who do not know what is declared, are not considered to be humans even if they appear in the form of humans.

The formation of man, the subject matter here, is this formation. This subject is detailed in the beginning of the Surah al-Insan, which is in the form of continuation of this declaration:

The third form of the intervention of Allah with humans in the Ayah is His teaching of declaration to man, which means the “explanation of the purpose of man” or the teaching of “the difference between good and evil”. What is preferable is the second meaning: teaching of what is good, right and bad, evil to a person.

Natural abilities of a person are not sufficient to distinguish exactly what is good and right and what is benefiting or damaging. As Allah stated, human is created in its nature as cruel, unthankful, ecstatic, desperate, mean, selfish, powerless, hasty, ambitious, impatient, intolerant and voluptuous. Salvation of a person from such negative qualities depends on his learning of the divine principles in the Qur’an. Hence, Allah sends down books and teachers that will teach them what is good and truth by intervening the societies.

This is the witnessing of Allah for that Muhammad is messenger.

These are the manifestation of Allah’s being Rahman [Allah; the One Who shows great mercy on the earth to all living beings that He created]. That is to say, He sends down books and messengers as He pities humans a lot.

Surah Al-Insan 1-3:

1Has not come upon human a time of billions of years since he was not a thing to mention? Indeed, it has!

2,3Surely, We formed man from a drop of semen mixture. We will wear him down/assign him liabilities. Therefore, We made him who hears very well, sees very well; informed him by sending him the knowledge to distinguish between good and evil. Indeed, We showed him the path, whether he repays for the blessings he is given or he is ungrateful.

These Ayat explain the expressions of “Rahman [Allah; the One Who shows great mercy on the earth to all living beings that He created] taught the Qur’an/to learn and to teach, formed human, taught him the good and the evil, and how to make distinction between them in the Surah ar-Rahman. A human was initially nothing; he did not have a property to be esteemed; he was an ordinary animal. Later on, as a divine grace, he was given the distinction capability; the opportunity to distinguish between what is good, beautiful, evil, damaging, and beneficial.

Here “being one who hears very well, sees very well” is allusion for the competence of a person to distinguish and to choose the path to be followed.

Allah, subsequent to His granting of distinction ability to humans, sent down books and messengers and guided them to the truth and left them with their free will: Indeed, We showed him the path, whether he repays for the blessings he is given or he is ungrateful:

To put it simply, an ‘‘insan’’ is

“An entity with an advanced brain; the abstract thinking ability; reason and intelligence at the level that he can be held responsible; that is to say, at the level that he can distinguish between the good and the evil; and literacy as well as capability to utilize and produce language and tools”. These features were provided to him in the creation by Allah.

                                                  

ADAM

There are different approaches/views regarding the origin of the word of Adam. In the studies relating to the subject conducted, the possibility that the word of “Adam” was derived from “adamu”, which means “my father” in the Sumerian language, or from the word of “adamu” that contains meanings of “done, brought out” in the Assyrian and Babylonian languages, or from the word of ‘’adam’’ which means “servant” in the Sabian language, was mentioned. In addition, it was asserted that the word has been derived from the root of ‘’adamah’’ (earth, ground) in Hebrew. While some asserted that the name Adam was given as he was created from red earth (adamah), in relation with the word of “adom” which means “red” but this approach was not acknowledged. According to a viewpoint, the word of “Adam” was derived from the root of “edemeh” meaning “outer surface of anything” while another viewpoint claims that the origin of the word was the word of “udmeh” that has the meanings of both “brownness” and “whiteness”. (Encyclopedias)

The hearsays regarding Adam usually stem from the Bible: (Genesis)/Sections 1-5. Adam’s end is specified as follows:

Fifth Section; 1-5. Sentences:

1 Story of Adam’s lineage: When God created man, He made him in the likeness of God.

2 Male and female He created them, and He blessed them. He named them “Man” when they were created.

  3 When Adam had lived a hundred and thirty years, he became the father of a son in his own likeness. He named him Seth.

 4 The days of Adam after he became the father of Seth were eight hundred years. He had other sons and daughters.

  5 All the days that Adam lived were nine hundred and thirty years; and he died.

In the Qur’an, “Adam” is stated seventeen times. The word of Adam has a connotation of proper noun in the Ayat where it is mentioned alone.

We prefer that the word of “Adam” comes from the word of “edim” in Arabic, meaning ‘‘interior, inner surface, inner layer,’ and we think accordingly that a person has an internal, spiritual, feature in addition to his dimension of being a bashar or insan.

That is to say:

Surah Al-Hajj 75, 76:

75,76Allah chooses messengers from among the harbinger Ayat and from among the mankind. Indeed, Allah is the One Who hears best, sees best, He knows that which is between their hands and behind them. And all matters will be returned only to Allah.

Surah Ali Imran 33, 34:

33,34Indeed, Allah favored Adam, Noah, family of Abraham and family of Imran –being from each other’s lineage– over the people of the time. And Allah is the One Who hears best, knows best.

Adam is a prophet: He was chosen from among humans.

Surah Al-Baqara 37-39:

37-39Then, Adam received some words from his Rabb/was revealed; We said: “Descend! All of you. When a guidance comes to you from Me, whoever follows My guidance, there will be no fear for them; they will not grieve either. And as for those who have disbelieved; consciously denied the divinity of Allah and the fact that He is Rabb; they are the companions of the fire. They will abide there eternally”. Then, Allah accepted his repentance. Surely, He is the One Who accepts the repentance of His servants, gives many opportunities to repent; the One Who is very merciful.

Ilka is revelation:

“ لقاءLika”, “ إلقاءilga”

In order that Wahy (revelation) is understood accurately and without confusion, our Rabb expounded it with the verb of “ilka”.

“ لقاءLika” means the reunion of one of the two things with the other exactly while “ إلقاءilka” has the meaning that “Making one of the two things reunite to the other exactly”. This reunion can be face to face, vis-a-vis, and by discerning through eyes. (Dictionaries of Taj al-Arus; Lisan al-Arab, Mufredat)

Surah An-Naml 6:

6Indeed, this Qur’an is being imposed in you by Allah, the One Who is law maker and the One Who knows best.

Surah Al-Muzzammil 5:

5Indeed, we will cast upon you a very heavy word/the Qur’an.

Surah Al-Mu’min 15:

15He is the One Who raises the degrees, the owner of the greatest throne/position: He places the revelation which is from His own command/His own affair to whomever He wills of His servants to warn about the day of meeting.

Surah Al-Qasas 86:

86And you were not expecting that the Book would be revealed/sent down to you. It has been given to you as a mercy from your Rabb. So, do not help the infidels; those who consciously deny the divinity of Allah and the fact that He is Rabb.

Surah Al-Baqara 37-39:

37-39Then, Adam received some words from his Rabb/was revealed; We said: “Descend! All of you. When a guidance comes to you from Me, whoever follows My guidance, there will be no fear for them; they will not grieve either. And as for those who have disbelieved; consciously denied the divinity of Allah and the fact that He is Rabb; they are the companions of the fire. They will abide there eternally”. Then, Allah accepted his repentance. Surely, He is the One Who accepts the repentance of His servants, gives many opportunities to repent; the One Who is very merciful.

BENIADEM

In the Qur’an, there is also the expression of “Benî Adem” (Sons of Adam). This expression takes place seven times. What are meant here are not the sons of Adam but lineage of Adam.

This expression, while warning people, states that they are not ordinary persons but the lineage of a knowledgeable and conscious ancestor with spiritual aspect subjected to Wahy (revelation) and that they must be the persons that deserve their ancestors. That is to say, an art of Reference is exhibited through these expressions and first Prophet Adam is reminded.

Example:

Surah Ya-Sin 60-62:

60-62Did I not enjoin upon you, saying: “O mankind! Do not worship satan, indeed he is an explicit enemy to you, but worship Me; this is the straight path and indeed satan already led many generations astray from among you”? Were you still not the ones who used their reason? 63This is Jahannah [Hell] which you have been promised.

Surah Al-Isra 70:

70And surely, We have made mankind owner of the honor and glory and carried them on vehicles on the land and at the sea and provided for them of clean-pleasant food. And We have favored them quite more than many of what We formed.

Surah Al-A‘raf 26-35:

26O mankind! We sent down to you clothing to cover your evil and dresses to adorn. And clothing of “being under the guardianship of Allah”; it is better. Here, this is from the Ayat of Allah so they may think and remember.

27O mankind! Do not let satan to avert you from the true religion as he stripped your father and mother of their clothing to show them their evil thus driving them out from green, lush gardens/paradise! Because he and his tribe see you from where you can not see them. We made devils the ones who guide, help to those who do not believe.

28And when they commit an immorality they say: “We found our ancestors on this path, Allah has ordered this to us”. Then say: “Allah does not order immorality. Are you saying about Allah that which you do not know?”

29Say: “My Rabb has commanded justice and equity. And turn your face; yourself to Him at every masjid’s [school] nearby; in public and invoke your Rabb by purifying the religion only for Him. You will return to Him as He created you first”.

30He guided a group, and a group deserved going astray; they took devils as their familiars who are guides, helpers and protectors from among those that are inferior to Allah and they truly think they are upon the righteous path they were guided.

31O mankind! At every masjid’s [school] nearby; in public take your adornments, eat and drink but do not be extravagant; indeed Allah does not like the extravagant ones.

32Say: “Who made haram/forbidden the adornments which Allah brought forth for His servants and the clean provisions?” Say: “These are for those who believe in simple worldly life – only for them on the day of Qiyamat [Resurrection] -.” Thus We explain the Ayat in detail for a people who know.

33Say: “Indeed my Rabb has only made haram/forbidden immoralities; what is apparent and concealed of them, sins, oppression without right, and associating those things with Allah about which Allah sent no authority and saying things about Allah that you do not know.”

34And there is an end of the term for every community with a leader. Therefore, when their end of the term comes, they will neither postpone for a moment nor will they advance.

35O mankind! Whoever enters under the guardianship of Allah and reforms when messengers who recite My Ayat come to you from among you, then there will not be fear for them and they will not grieve.

Adam made a mistake despite he was a chosen prophet. He noticed his mistake and asked forgiveness of Allah. Allah accepted his repentance. Hence, in the hailing of Beniadem, such things and beauties are reminded.

This is what concerns us.

IBNEYADEM

In a part, (Surah Al-Ma’idah 27) it is mentioned as “Ibne’y-Adem (Two sons of Adam)”. And this is generally translated as the two sons of Adam and named Cain and Abel. However, it is clearly understood from the passage in the Surah Al-Ma’idah that they are two persons from the Israelites. The expression of “Beni Adem” should not be understood as “Adam’s three, four, five… sons” but “Adam’s sons (Adam’s lineage)” and the “Ibney Ademe” should be understood as “Two persons from Adam’s lineage”.

Hakkı Yılmaz

[1] Rabb means “The One Who disciplines and educates, One Who guides his creations to a certain target/targets within the frame of a schedule, one who programs and manages the development”. This word, in absolute terms, is used for Allah alone. As to humans, it is used in such forms as “the rabb of the house”, “the rabb of the workplace”, etc. The English term closest to this term in the context of meaning is “boss”. While having a meaning close to rabb, this word does not cover the meaning of rabb entirely as it is used only in the commercial context. For this reason, since we did not have the possibility to explain the term rabb with multiple words, we had to leave it in its original Arabic form. Therefore, our readers should keep the above mentioned definition in their minds.

[2] (Lisan al-Arab, “e n s” art.)

 

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