31 Jul

THE CONCEPT OF MIRACLE AND THE MIRACLES OF THE PROPHETS

THE CONCEPT OF MIRACLE

“Mucize” (Miracle) have been derived from the root of ‘Acz’ in Arabic which means “that which incapacitates”. With this, “that which incapacitates the reason and might of human” is meant. In the western languages, it is taken from the Latin word of ‘miraculum’ as ‘Le miracle’. It means “Something extraordinary, a situation that is splendid (extraordinary)”.

So, is an event which is considered as a “Miracle” possible in the universe?

Let us consider this in terms of the events in the universe:

DETERMINISM IN NATURE                                 

In determinism, there is no mysterious event and force that is not a subject matter of experiment. Events pursue one another in the universe. That is to say, one event causes another event that creates another. The universe continues as the chain of events. What causes an event is also another event; not a metaphysic or supernatural force.

There is a reason for everything in the universe. Nothing happens without a reason. The reason of anything is an event of its own type. The first event is called CAUSE and the second event is called EFFECT. There is a mathematical ratio between cause and effect. When the cause takes place, the effect takes place COMPULSORILY.

According to this rule, if a strict DETERMINISM is dominant in the universe; that is to say, if everything is in a CAUSE-EFFECT relation, anything such as miracle cannot be present.

Some people approached to this topic in terms of contingence and relativity in nature and accepted that these things may happen.

CONTINGENCE IN NATURE

As it is seen above, there is an obligation in determinism. So, when the event A takes place, the event B must take place as an obligation. For example, if water is heated up to 100 degrees, it boils definitely and obligatorily.

So the opposite of this obligation is CONTINGENCE. According to this law, when an event A takes place, the event B may not take place.

While determinism was accepted in the century XVIII strictly, scientists such as Leibniz and Emile Boutroux proved in our age that there is contingence in nature but determinism. Bergson, Guenat, Reinke and Driesch asserted that determinism is not present in the world of living beings and made the movement of VITALISM and combined their thoughts in this regard in their work entitled ‘Contingence of the Laws of Nature’.

According to the principles of this contingence, it is possible that an EFFECT, an event can take place without the emergence of a miracle or a natural cause.

RELATIVITY IN NATURE

With the basic concepts of the sciences like physics, chemistry and mathematics such as Mayer Principle, Newton laws and Kepler Principles, studies were conducted on non-living objects and considering that such principles were certainly true, obligation of determinism was accepted.

However, the innovations that took place in the fields of physics and mechanics changed such strict understanding of determinism from its root. A. Einstein (1879-1958) made a revolution in physics, chemistry and mathematics with his Relativity Theory which is proved by high mathematics. According to this theory:

  1. There is no constant mass. Mass is subject to the speed of the objects.
  2. There is no matter, there is energy.
  3. The universe is N dimensional, not 3 dimensional.
  4. There is no time and space objectively. They depend on the movements and appearance of objects.
  5. General gravity is not a force but a geometric property of the universe that is explained with the curvature of space.

In this case, it may be thought that a miracle can take place according to the relativity in nature.

In the world of the living beings, there is almost no place for determinism. There, there is no obligation between reason–outcome, cause–effect. Everything is around contingence. A reaction that is equivalent to action is never encountered. For example, the plants and animals feeding under the same conditions acquire different structures.

In the religion terminology:

Miracles are the extraordinary (unusual, contrary to the rules of nature) things for the person alleging to be a prophet to exhibit by the permission of Allah in order to prove that this cause of him/her is true.

After defining miracle, the Muslim theologians institutionalized the conditions of this.

CONDITIONS OF A MIRACLE

Miracle is not the personal skill of the one who shows it. It is granted to him/her by Allah in order to fulfill his/her duty, prove his/her cause and convince the society.

In order to consider an event a miracle:

  • It must be carried out without a cause and reason. (It must be contrary to determinism)
  • It must be extraordinary.
  • No one but the person alleging to be a prophet must be able to carry it out.
  • The event that takes place must not refute him/her.
  • It must take place in compliance with its objective.
  • It must be in his/her period of prophethood, not earlier life
    • It must be manifest. That is to say, it must take place before the eye of everyone and everyone must see it.

In line with the explanations we have so far included, let us take a look at the miracles (!) which are claimed to have been granted to the prophets. As mentioning all the prophets and their miracles attributed to them one by one will prolong the subject matter, let us scrutinize the miracles attributed to Jesus, Moses, Muhammad and Abraham from the Qur’an.

In the Qur’an, the word of miracle is not mentioned. In the Qur’an the word of “Ayat (evidences/signs)” takes place.

Surah Al-Mu’min 78:

78And indeed, We sent many messengers before you. Among them are those We have related to you, among them are those We have not related to you. No messenger can bring an evidence/a sign except by permission/knowledge of Allah. And when the command of Allah comes, it will be fulfilled in truth. Those who commit falsehood has lost and suffered in this.

Surah Ar-Ra‘d 38:

38Surely, We have sent prophets before you as well. And We gave them spouses and descendants [sons and daughters] as well. It is not for a prophet to bring an evidence/a sign without permission/knowledge of Allah. For every end of the term, there is a decree.

Our Rabb[1] expressed every entity and event that is the evidence/sign of His own existence and oneness as Ayah.

Ayah revealed to Muhammad (evidence/sign)

In the pre-Islamic societies, narration of the mythological events was widespread. In mythology, many demigod humans are depicted. When the Messenger came, the society wanted and expected from him to exhibit skills, just like in mythology, to have a golden house, to ascend into the heavens/universe, to bring a complete book from there, to have an angel with him as in their beliefs, not to eat, not to drink, to have a garden of dates and grapes underneath of which rivers gush forth, to make the heavens/universe fall on themselves. But they were notified by Allah that only the Wahy [revelation], the Qur’an, was sufficient as the proof of Muhammad’s duty as a messenger. And at all times, as the proof of Muhammad’s duty as a messenger, only the Wahy [revelation], the Qur’an, was shown.

Surah An-Najm 1-4:

1Every descending of the Ayat which have descended group by group is the evidence that, 2your companion has neither gone astray nor has he transgressed. 3And He does not speak of his vain, transitory desire. 4What he says to you; those groups of Ayat that have descended, are nothing but the revelations which have been revealed to him.

Surah Ya-Sin 1-6:

1Ya, Sin.

2-6The Qur’an that contains the laws/that is prevented from corruption which is sent down by the One Who is the most exalted, the most powerful, the most honorable, the invincible/the subduer, the possessor of vast mercy so you may warn with it those people whose ancestors were not warned and thus who are apathetic is the evidence that you are among those messengers and indeed you are on a straight path.

Surah Al-Ankabut 50, 51:

50And they said: “Why have not evidences/signs been sent down to him from his Rabb?”. Say: “Evidences/signs are only with Allah. I am only an explicit warner”.

51And is it not sufficient for them that We have revealed to you the Book that is recited to them? There is absolutely a mercy and a reminder in this for a people who believe.

When our Rabb said “Hasn’t what was sent down been sufficient?”, the truth that Allah has not given to His prophets anything but the Wahy [revelation] as an evidence/sign is also explained.

In fact, when Moses confronted the Pharaoh, the Pharaoh asked a proof from Moses and Allah made Moses to exhibit his knowledge as a proof:

Surah Al-A’raf 103-108:

103Then after those messengers/those people, We sent Moses with Our evidences/signs to Pharaoh and his chiefs but they treated the evidences/signs unjustly. See how was the end of those corrupters!

104,105And Moses said: “O Pharaoh! Truly I am a messenger sent by Rabb of all universes. I am liable to say nothing but the truth about Allah. Truly, I have come to you with a crystal clear evidence from your Rabb. So let the Israelites leave along with me”.

106Pharaoh said: “If you have come with evidence, then bring it forth if you are one of those who tell the truth”.

107,108Then Moses threw his knowledge forth and it obviously became “a devourer”. And he pulled out his strength and put it open; then his strength was excellent and perfect for the audience.

Surah Ash-Shu’ara 31-33:

31Pharaoh said: “Well, bring it forward now, if you are one of those righteous”.

32Then Moses brought his knowledge forward; and suddenly the knowledge of Moses is an explicit “devourer”.

33He pulled his power out and that power is perfect to the audience, flawless.

 

In many Ayat of the Qur’an, Allah expresses that the Wahy [Revelation] is “His own work/affair” and Wahy have been/can be made by no one but Him.

Allah chooses messenger

 

Surah Al-Hajj 75,76:

75,76Allah chooses messengers from among the harbinger Ayat and from among the mankind. Indeed, Allah is the One Who hears best, sees best, He knows that which is between their hands and behind them. And all matters will be returned only to Allah.

Leaving a soul (to reveal/Wahy) is a work that is specific to Allah and Allah reveals the soul to whomever servant of Him He wills.

Surah Al-Mu’min 15:

15He is the One Who raises the degrees, the owner of the greatest throne/position: He places the revelation which is from His own command/His own affair to whomever He wills of His servants to warn about the day of meeting.

Surah Al-Isra 85:

85And they ask you about the Wahy. Say: “Wahy [Revelation] is of the affair of my Rabb. And you have been given nothing except a little knowledge”.

Surah Ash-Shura 52, 53:

52,53Thus We have revealed to you the soul/the Qur’an which is of Our own command/affair. You did not know what the book was, what faith was. But We made it a light/soul with which We guide from whomever We will of Our servants. Without a doubt, you also guide to a straight path; the path of Allah for Whom those in the heavens/universe and on the earth are. So open your eyes! All matters return only to Allah.

Surah Ad-Dukhan 2- 7:

2-7The explicit Book/the Book which clarifies is the evidence that indeed We sent it down, as an affair from Us, during a night in which every matter/event distinguished, everything was given in abundance, earnings was high, was full of laws, rules and principles that are set forth to prevent injustice and chaos. Indeed We are warners. Surely, We are those Who send messengers as a mercy from your Rabb, Rabb of the heavens/universe, the earth and all that is in between – If you are those who certainly believe-. Indeed, He is the One Who hears best, knows best.

According to these Ayat, Wahy [Revelation], just like the first creation, is a thing that is specific to Allah. The fact that Wahy is the biggest evidence;sign comes from this fact. Trying to understand the question of “how” for the Wahy being evidence; sign through the theories in the universe is nothing but beating the air. However, it is necessary to evaluate every event that Allah did not say, “This is something specific to me” through scientific principles.

It is necessary to stop and think at this point.

Despite these facts, as a result of that the previous holy books have been falsified and the Qur’an has been misunderstood, people attributed many extraordinary qualities to the prophets. So much that, the miracles (!) attributed to the other prophets were multiplied by thousands an adapted to last Prophet Mohammed. This way, the last prophet has been made the deity of the deities.

They adapted thousands of miracles (!) to our prophet. All of them are severe exremism. They wrote volumes of books and they exhibited the products of their imaginations just like novels.

Despite the fact that the Book which was revealed to the Messenger is sufficient (as an evidence-sign) has been specified above, such fabrications were unfortunately conducted. Although the Qur’an is the GREATEST of the evidences and signs, those persons who are unable to comprehend this, fabricated miracles (!), and even, as severe extremism, ascribed DIVINE QUALITIES to the Messenger, and they went astray.

The Qur’an is an evidence/sign all by itself thanks to the knowledge it provides in terms of LITERARY ARTS, THE SUBJECTS IT CONTAINS, PHYSICS, CHEMISTRY, BIOLOGY and ASTRONOMY THAT WE ARE NEWLY ABLE TO UNDERSTAND. Hence, it challenges the humanity as ‘YOU CANNOT BRING FORTH THE LIKE OF IT, AN INDEPENDENT DIVISIONOF IT, AND AN AYAH OF IT EVEN IF YOU TRY TO BRING FORTH’ You can see these challenges in Surah al-Baqara 23, Surah Al-Isra 88, Surah Jonas 54, Surah Hud 13, Surah At-Tur 33, 34.

This challenge has been ongoing for fifteen centuries and will continue until the Qiyamat [Resurrection]. The Qur’an is the GREATEST of the Ayat (evidences/signs) in their form that has impressed since its descend and will be impressing trillions of people in the future.

MIRACLES (!) OF JESUS

As it is known, with regard to Prophet Jesus, Muslims accept miracles such as that he spoke when he was on the cradle, that he resurrected the dead, that he made the innate blind seeing just like the sound people, that he healed albaras which is a skin disease, he informed about the things that his people ate or stored to be eaten, that he was born without a father, that he knew the holy books of Allah, the Torah, the Bible and the Qur’an, that he made a thing like bird from mud and gave a life to it and made it fly with his breath, that he notified about the auspicious person, our Prophet Mohammed, who will come after him; and the Christians accept miracles like that he converted water into wine, he stopped a storm, that he healed ill persons and blind ones as well as paralyzed and leprous people, he exorcised, that he informed of the future, that he changed his appearance, that he increased the food and drink, he made the commodities more productive.

We are leaving the analysis of the expressions specified in the books of the Christians (Matthew 8:23-27, John 2:1-11, Matthew 8:14-15, John 9:1-41, Luke 5:17- 46, Mark 10:46-52, Luke 17:11-19, Mark 4:39.) to the Christians and analyzing the Ayat in the Qur’an which have been used to make miracles for Prophet Jesus:

Surah Ali-Imran 45-51:

45,46And when the harbinger Ayat once said: “O Mary! Allah gives you the good tidings of a word from Him. His name will be Jesus the Messiah, son of Mary. He will be honorable in the world and in Akhirat [Afterlife]. And he will be among those who have been brought close and the righteous. He will speak with the people as an adult and in a higher position. 48And Allah will teach him the book, the laws, rules and principles that are set forth to prevent injustice, corruption and chaos and the Bible and the Torah.

49-51And He will make him a messenger to Israelites to say, ‘The truth is that I have brought/come to you with an evidence/a sign from your Rabb; surely, I design for you a clay; mud; ceramic object; thurible (censer) that resembles a bird. Then I blow into it; form an aerosol so, by permission of Allah, all that which causes illness will become a bird/fly away. I remove the blindness which is not from birth, poisoning of snake, scorpion and lizard/harmful plants in the vineyards, gardens and farms by permission/knowledge of Allah and I revive the social dead by permission of Allah. I inform you about your food that you will eat and store in your houses; save to eat later. –If you are the ones who believe, there is definitely an evidence/a sign in this for you.- I confirm the contents of Torah only which is contained in the Bible as well. I will make lawful a part of that which has been forbidden to you. I have brought to you an evidence/a sign from your Rabb. Now enter under the guardianship of Allah and follow me. Surely, Allah is my Rabb and your Rabb. Therefore, worship Him! This is the righteous path’”.

Surah Al-Ma’idah 110:

110When Allah said: “O Jesus, son of Mary! Remember My favor upon you and your mother! When I strengthened you with the Wahy [Revelation] of Allah. You were talking to the people as a man in a high position and an adult. When I taught you the Book, the laws, rules and principles that were set forth to prevent injustice, corruption and chaos, the Torah and the Bible.

When you made an object [thurible] from mud; clay [ceramic] that looked like a bird with My permission/knowledge. Then you blew into it; formed aerosol, and they [pests that spread; transmit disease] became birds/went away immediately by My permission. You removed the blindness which is not from birth, poisoning of snake, scorpion and lizard/harmful plants in the vineyards, gardens and farms by permission/knowledge of Allah. And, again with My permission/knowledge, you brought forth/revived social dead. And when you came to Israelites with explicit evidences and those who disbelieved in the divinity of Allah and the fact that He is Rabb from among them said: “This is only an explicit magic”, I protected you from them.

The source of the miracles attributed to Prophet Jesus is these Ayat. In fact, in these Ayat, the subject matter is the training of a messenger by our Rabb. While this topic is passed, content of the messages that was delivered once to Mary by Messenger Zachariah is explained as well.

The angels mentioned here are those revelations as in the Ayat of 42 and 43, and what the angels said are the messages in those revelations. Here, the narration is conducted by means of the art of intak (the art of giving voice to those other than human/to make them speak). In fact, these messages were revealed to Zachariah and Zachariah delivered them to Mary. In the Surah al-Ahzab, Ayat 30-34, we will see that the women of the Prophet are addressed through the Messenger.

In the Ayah 46, information about Jesus of “He will speak with the people as an adult and in a higher position” is given. In order to make this point more understandable, we are giving an analysis we conducted on the Surah Mary here:

…….

Surah Mary 29-34:

29Then Mary pointed to him; the one who was below her during the childbirth; Zachariah, and asked him to explain the situation. Zachariah guaranteed that Mary had given birth to the child without committing unlawful sexual intercourse and asked them to raise the child at the temple. They said: “How can we, chiefs of our people, speak to a Sabian; the one who has abandoned our religion/How do chiefs speak to a Sabian; the one who has abandoned our religion?”.

34This is Jesus [Isa], son of Mary, about whom they have been disputing according to the word of truth, and who says: 30Surely, I am the servant of Allah. He has given me the book and made me a prophet. 31He has rendered me blessed wherever I am. He has given me Salah [supporting financially and spiritually; striving to enlighten the community] and zaqah/tax as a liability as long as I live. 32And He has made me kind to my mother. And He has not made me a tyrant, an unhappy one. 33And Salam [health, peace, happiness…] be upon me, on the day I was born, on the day I will die, and on the day I will be resurrected again as alive. 36And indeed, Allah is my Rabb, and He is your Rabb as well. So, worship Him, this is the straight path”.

According to this interpretation, Mary fasted, complying with the recommendation of the messenger and did not answer to her people despite their saddening accusations. In addition to her silence, she pointed at the prophet ZACHARIAH, like she was saying “He shall answer”, and when her people said: “How can we, chiefs of our people, speak to a Sabian; the one who has abandoned our religion/How do chiefs speak to a Sabian; the one who has abandoned our religion?”.

It is also understood from these Ayat that propther Zachariah was Sabian like his son John; he abandoned Judaism.

 

We showed a hundred times that the Mushaf[2] arrangement committee failed to pay attention to the divisions and grammar rules; they ignored the fact that it had to be arranged one after another, and did not make a chronologic arrangement when they arranged the Mushaf. We considered that this issue might have stemmed from the fact that the arrangement committee was not experts of grammar and that they preferred the way of protecting the whole first, and then making the corrections.

However, the fact that this committee and its head responsible assignees remained insensitive to such negativities; that, thus, many events and massacres took place; even the prevention of the analysis of the arrangement for many reasons; made us think that the reason for this was not negligence or oversight but betrayal.

In the work of ours, we saw that the places of some Ayat, in the passages regarding Prophet Jesus (Surah Mary, Surah az-Zukhruf, Surah An-Nisa), were changed in the Qur’an, and that those Ayat did not correspond to their present location in technical and semantic grounds. We shared these as well.

Corruption in the arrangement in the passages and paragraphs, especially in the passages related to Moses and Jesus, makes us think seriously.

Some of the Ayat in the Qur’an were carried to the passage relating to Jesus and their place was changed in order to transfer the qualifications regarding the Qur’an to Prophet Jesus and wrong belief formations were deliberately supplied. With this betrayal in mind, we took it as a requirement of our belief to pore over the fact that whether there is a problem in the reading [qira’at] like the one in the arrangement or not and we re-handled the passage regarding Jesus in the Surah Mary and scrutinized it. And, we reached very important findings we have previously neglected there. We are interpreting these Ayat within the framework of the new findings and sharing them with you. Passages which are related to Moses will come in the later Surat.

 

Interpretation of the Ayah 29 according to the traditional understanding is as follows:

Upon this, she [Mary] pointed at him [child]. They said, “How can we talk to a person who is a little child in the cradle?”

 

According to this interpretation, Mary fasted, complying with the recommendation of the messenger and did not answer to her people despite their saddening accusations. In addition to her silence, she pointed at her baby as if she was saying “He shall answer”, and when her people said: “How can we talk to a person who is a little child in the cradle?”, then Jesus spoke while he was in the cradle.(!)

This meaning was supported with the meanings of the current reading of the Ayat of the Surat Ali-Imran 46, Al-Ma’idah 110 and Jesus was given the miracle of having spoken in the cradle. And Jesus, according to the current arrangement of the Ayat, said (!) when he was in the cradle, “Surely, I am the servant of Allah. He has given me the book and made me a prophet. He has rendered me blessed wherever I am. He has given me Salah [supporting financially and spiritually; striving to enlighten the community] and zaqah/tax as a liability as long as I live. And He has made me kind to my mother. And He has not made me a tyrant, an unhappy one. And Salam [health, peace, happiness…] be upon me, on the day I was born, on the day I will die, and on the day I will be resurrected again as alive. And indeed, Allah is my Rabb, and He is your Rabb as well. So, worship Him, this is the straight path”.

However, as we have clearly stated, the arrangement of this paragraph was not conducted accurately and Ayah 36, some of the words of Jesus, (“And indeed, Allah is my Rabb, and He is your Rabb as well. So, worship Him, this is the straight path”) were arranged as the Ayah 34 and the paragraph was deregulated and rendered meaningless. That is to say, this Ayah explicitly shows that, this paragraph has been touched.

Ayat 30–33 and 36:

34This is Jesus [Isa], son of Mary, about whom they have been disputing according to the word of truth, and who says: 30Surely, I am the servant of Allah. He has given me the book and made me a prophet. 31He has rendered me blessed wherever I am. He has given me Salah [supporting financially and spiritually; striving to enlighten the community] and zaqah/tax as a liability as long as I live. 32And He has made me kind to my mother. And He has not made me a tyrant, an unhappy one. 33And Salam [health, peace, happiness…] be upon me, on the day I was born, on the day I will die, and on the day I will be resurrected again as alive. 36And indeed, Allah is my Rabb, and He is your Rabb as well. So, worship Him, this is the straight path”.

 

We made our analysis on the word “المَهد el-mehdi/cradle” which we see in the passage and in other Ayat regarding Jesus. It is possible to read this word, which was written in the first Mushaf copies without haraka (vowel point) just like the other words, as “المَهد el-mehdi”, “المُهد el-mühdi” and “المِهد el-mihdi”. [3]

If this word is read as “المَهد el-mehdi”, it means cradle; if it is read asالمُهد el-mühdi”, it means High position”.

In the official Mushaf in our hands, the first place where this word is mentioned in relation to Jesus is Surah Ali Imran, Ayat 38, 39. In the copy of Isam of the first Mushafs, the 385th leaf where these Ayat take place is lost. This page was added by Davud b. Ali Keylaniy in Mecca in the year of 1437/841 and placed into the Mushaf.[4] Those who wrote the lost page did not mark the word of “المهد el-mhd” with a haraka (vowel point) in the Ayat. That is to say, they rendered the word readable as “المَهد el-mehdi“, المُهد el-mühdi and المِهد el-mihdi”.

If we read the word of el mehdi in Surah Mary 29 as “المُهد el-Mühdi”, the meaning of the Ayah becomes automatically “Then Mary pointed to him; the one who was below her during the childbirth; Zachariah, and asked him to explain the situation. Zachariah guaranteed that Mary had given birth to the child without committing unlawful sexual intercourse and asked them to raise the child at the temple. They said: “How can we, chiefs of our people, speak to a Sabian; the one who has abandoned our religion/How do chiefs speak to a Sabian; the one who has abandoned our religion?”.

 

Moreover, considering the truth that the word in the original of this Ayat which is read as نكلّم nükellimu” was without the haraka (vowel point) in the first copies of the Mushaf and the letters that constitute this word can also be read asيكلّم yükellimü”, thus giving a meaning to the Ayah accordingly; we will see that the Ayah will mean, “Then Mary pointed to him; the one who was below her during the childbirth; Zachariah, and asked him to explain the situation. Zachariah guaranteed that Mary had given birth to the child without committing unlawful sexual intercourse and asked them to raise the child at the temple. They said: “How can we, chiefs of our people, speak to a Sabian; the one who has abandoned our religion/How do chiefs speak to a Sabian; the one who has abandoned our religion?”.

 

Having explained the readings [qira’at] and their meanings in the Ayat, we are returning to the issue of arrangement of the Ayat in the passage.

 

The Ayah 30 of the Mushaf we presently have starts with “قال qale (he said:)”. This ayah was arranged right after Ayah 29 and the meaning of “Jesus, the child in the cradle, said: “…”” was made. If these words had been a demonstration to those people who asserted that a child in cradle could not speak, the clause should have technically started with “fâ-i takibiyye (a preposition which is used while explaining an event that occurs with an affect of something else)” and the expression should have become “فقال fa qale…”. Hence, in the Ayah 29, Mary’s defense against the accusation to her came in the form of “فأشارت اليه fa esharet ileyhi /Then, she [Mary] pointed to him [Zachariah]” with “fa-i takıbiyye (a preposition which is used while explaining an event that occurs with an affect of something else)”.

 

In sum, the Ayah 30 is not technically suitable for its location. The Ayah 30 is the continuation of the Ayah 34 in terms of technique and meaning. In the form of a clause, it is the adjective of the expression of “Jesus, the son of Mary” given in Ayah 34 along with the Ayat 31, 32, 33 and 36. With the acknowledgement of this fact, the meaning of the paragraph will be as follows:

      

Surah Mary 29-34:

29Them Mary pointed to him; the one who was below her during the childbirth; Zachariah, and asked him to explain the situation. Zachariah guaranteed that Mary had given birth to the child without committing unlawful sexual intercourse and asked them to raise the child at the temple. They said: “How can we, chiefs of our people, speak to a Sabian; the one who has abandoned our religion/How do chiefs speak to a Sabian; the one who has abandoned our religion?”.

34This is Jesus [Isa], son of Mary, about whom they have been disputing according to the word of truth, and who says: 30Surely, I am the servant of Allah. He has given me the book and made me a prophet. 31He has rendered me blessed wherever I am. He has given me Salah [supporting financially and spiritually; striving to enlighten the community] and zaqah/tax as a liability as long as I live. 32And He has made me kind to my mother. And He has not made me a tyrant, an unhappy one. 33And Salam [health, peace, happiness…] be upon me, on the day I was born, on the day I will die, and on the day I will be resurrected again as alive. 36And indeed, Allah is my Rabb, and He is your Rabb as well. So, worship Him, this is the straight path”.

 

In this paragraph, duty of Jesus as a prophet and his life were summarized clearly. In his statement, there is no concession other than the Sunnetullah (Law of Allah) in question. The summary regarding mission of Jesus is also given in the following Ayat:

Surah Al-Ma’idah 72, 73:

72Surely, those who say: “Allah is the Messiah, son of Mary” have certainly become infidels; the ones who consciously deny the divinity of Allah and the fact that He is Rabb. Yet the Messiah said: “O Israelites! Worship Allah, my Rabb and your Rabb. Surely, whoever associates others with Allah, Allah will definitely make Jannah [Heaven/Paradise] haram/forbidden to him and his abode will be the Fire. And there will be no one from helpers for those who do wrong; act against their own good by associating others with Allah, by disbelieving”.

73Indeed, those who say: “Allah is the third of the three” have certainly become infidels; the ones who consciously deny the divinity of Allah and the fact that He is Rabb. Yet there is no god but the one God. If they do not desist from what they say, a painful punishment will definitely touch the infidels; those who consciously deny the divinity of Allah and the fact that He is Rabb from among them.

Surah Az-Zukhruf 63, 64:

63,64And when Jesus came with explicit proofs, he said: “I have brought you the laws, rules and principles that are set forth to prevent injustice and chaos and I have come to make clear to you some of that over which you differ. So, enter under the guardianship of Allah and obey me. Surely, Allah; He is my Rabb and your Rabb. So worship Him. This is a righteous path”.

According to the text in this paragraph, the “Mühd” (at high position)”, is not Jesus but the chief temple attendants of that day.

As it is known, the expression of “ المهدel MHD”, which is the primary element of our subject matter, is mentioned in Surah Ali-Imran 46 and Surah Al-Ma’idah 110, regarding Prophet Jesus. When we read the word as “ المُهدel Muhd” and give it a meaning this way, the meaning of the Ayat will be as follows.

 

Surah Ali-Imran 46:

He will speak with the people as an adult and in a higher position.

 

Surah Al-Ma’idah 110:

110When Allah said: “O Jesus, son of Mary! Remember My favor upon you and your mother! When I strengthened you with the Wahy [Revelation] of Allah. You were talking to the people as a man in a HIGH POSITION and an adult. When I taught you the Book, the laws, rules and principles that were set forth to prevent injustice, corruption and chaos, the Torah and the Bible.

When you made an object [thurible] from mud; clay [ceramic] that looked like a bird with My permission/knowledge. Then you blew into it; formed aerosol, and they [pests that spread; transmit disease] became birds/went away immediately by My permission. You removed the blindness which is not from birth, poisoning of snake, scorpion and lizard/harmful plants in the vineyards, gardens and farms by permission/knowledge of Allah. And, again with My permission/knowledge, you brought forth/revived social dead. And when you came to Israelites with explicit evidences and those who disbelieved in the divinity of Allah and the fact that He is Rabb from among them said: “This is only an explicit magic”, I protected you from them.

In these Ayat, contrary to Surah Mary 29, the one who is in the high position is Jesus. Our Rabb granted him high positions. We see this in Surah An-Nisa (Ayah 158) “They certainly did not kill him. Rather, Allah ascended him to Himself/raised him in degree”. It was stated that such high positions were granted to Prophet Idris as well.

Surah Mary 56, 57:

56And mention/remind Idris [Enoch] in the Book. Indeed, he was a righteous person, a prophet. 57And We raised him to an high place.

 

According to what is understood from these remarks, the locations of the Ayat of the passages regarding Jesus in the Mushaf and their readings were deliberately changed in order to give Jesus a special status. By having done these, Jesus was made to speak in the cradle, ascend into the Heavens beside Allah, people were convinced that he would return from there, his return was considered to be the sign of the Qiyamat [Resurrection] and the belief that everyone will believe him before death was expanded.

 

As far as it is known, the Jews and the Christians do not accept that Prophet Jesus spoke in the cradle and assert the following views:

“If this event had truly taken place, it would have expanded along people in the form of rumor as a very interesting and impressive event and it would never be forgotten. Yet, such event has never been heard and such belief never existed in even the most fanatics of the Christians. In addition, it is an historical reality that the Jews were the enemies to Jesus at that time. Hence, when Jesus proclaimed himself as a messenger, they tried to kill him. If Jesus had spoken in the cradle and proclaimed himself as a prophet, the Jews would have annihilated him even at that time”.

 

…..

Resuscitation of Jesus of the dead

In this paragraph, the fact that Jesus would say to the Israelites “I will resurrect the dead with the permission of Allah” was notified to Mary before Jesus was born. Here, resuscitation of Jesus of the dead was perceived in the actual sense and many sagas were propounded. We think it is unnecessary to include them herewith.

However, when we look at the Qur’an, we see that in many Ayat (Surah An-Naml 80, Surah Fatir 22, Surah Al-An’am 122) the expression of “dead” is used not as an actual dead but “living dead (spiritually dead)”. The expression of “dead” in these Ayat is used, as seen, for the persons who were spiritually dead; deep in association and denial, lost their reason and conscience.

Meanwhile, we must remember that the Qur’an was sent to revive such dead persons and it is the soul:

Surah Ash-Shura 52:

52,53Thus We have revealed to you the soul/the Qur’an which is of Our own command/affair. You did not know what the book was, what faith was. But We made it a light/soul with which We guide from whomever We will of Our servants. Without a doubt, you also guide to a straight path; the path of Allah for Whom those in the heavens/universe and on the earth are. So open your eyes! All matters return only to Allah.

After this information, we must now pay attention to this Ayah and the underlined expression:

Surah Al-Anfal 24:

24O you who have believed! When the Messenger invites you to that which gives you life, respond to Allah and the Messenger. And know that Allah intervenes between man and his heart. And you will absolutely be gathered before Him.

 

This means that the Wahy [Revelations] brought by Prophet Jesus to the society are the source of the spiritual life as well and provided the revival of the people who were spiritually dead.

Creation of Birds

In order to understand what this evidence; sign is, it is necessary to know the meaning of the verb “halq” well.

The verb “ الخلقHalq”

Following information is given with regard to this word:

The real meaning of the verb “خلق halq” is “to fashion, to measure, to determine and to proportion. In the Arabic language, it is “doing without an example, without an imitation. Abu Bakr ibn al-Anbari says: ‘The word “Halq” is used in the Arabic language in two angles as “construct” and “fashion”.’ [5]

We see that in the Qur’an, the verb of “halq” is used in many Ayat (for example; Surah al-Baqara 21, 29, Surah Al-Fajr 8, Surah Al-Mu’minun 14, Surah Ash-Shu’ara 137, Surah Al-Ankabut 17, Surah Sad 7) as to fashion, to proportion, to determine, to shape.

The expressions in these two Ayat will suffice to admit the verb “ خلَقhalq” is used as to fashion.

Surah Al-Ma’idah 110:

110When Allah said: “O Jesus, son of Mary! Remember My favor upon you and your mother! When I strengthened you with the Wahy [Revelation] of Allah. You were talking to the people as a man in a high position and an adult. When I taught you the Book, the laws, rules and principles that were set forth to prevent injustice, corruption and chaos, the Torah and the Bible.

When you made; formed an object [thurible] from mud; clay [ceramic] that looked like a bird with My permission/knowledge. Then you blew into it; formed aerosol, and they [pests that spread; transmit disease] became birds/went away immediately by My permission. You removed the blindness which is not from birth, poisoning of snake, scorpion and lizard/harmful plants in the vineyards, gardens and farms by permission/knowledge of Allah. And, again with My permission/knowledge, you brought forth/revived social dead. And when you came to Israelites with explicit evidences and those who disbelieved in the divinity of Allah and the fact that He is Rabb from among them said: “This is only an explicit magic”, I protected you from them.

Surah Al-Fajr 6-13:

6-13Have you not seen/thought about what your Rabb did to the people of Ad, Iram who owned pillars – like of which was not formed among the cities –, the people of Thamud who cut out the rocks in the valleys, Pharaoh, the owner of the stakes; who had excellent armies/tortured like never seen before? They transgressed in those lands. Therefore, they increased the corruption therein. That is why, your Rabb poured the whip of punishment upon them.

Saying of Jesus “By the knowledge/permission of Allah” is for eliminating the mistake of those people who believe that he is a deity.

When the verses are translated through faithfulness on the text, it will be seen that here, sending of Jesus to Israelites and reasons for this are explained. Prophets Moses and Aaron were sent to teach the revelation and oneness of the God to Israelites and to save them from slavery in Egypt. In this passage, it is summarized that, upon conveyance of the revelation by Jesus, he was sent with such tasks as performing preventive medicine, optics, dermatology, teaching consumption of healthy food, preparation of canned food, pickles, molasses, brine, stocking of wheat, barley, legumes and protection of these from humidity and insects for saving Israelites from the epidemics which surrounded them, taking precautions for them and providing them a convenient life.

In the Ayah, which we translated as “surely, I design for you a clay; mud; ceramic object; thurible (censer) that resembles a bird”, the object of the verb “design” was not mentioned in the original Ayah and left open for the interpretation of the readers. In the Ayah, it not said “bird figure” or “bird model”, but “I will design ‘something that resembles a bird figure’ or something ‘like a bird model’”. What mentioned here is that Jesus makes a clay thurible in the form of bird and blows the spices that he puts inside it thus repelling mosquitoes, flies and other insects that might cause eye diseases, etc. It is also obvious that most of the thuribles made today are in the form of a bird.

Also, subject of the verb “fayaqunu (it becomes)” is not mentioned in the ayah and left open for the interpretation of the readers.

These facts that are understood from the literal meaning of the Ayat are supported by the Qumran (Dead Sea) Scrolls of Essenes which have been deciphered recently. (Related sections of the SCROLLS OF QUMRAN can be examined)

In the expression in the Ayat, “I will make lawful a part of that which has been forbidden to you”, he states that he will eliminate the things that the Jews made haram/forbidden by themselves and bring forth the truth. We can handle this from two angles:

– If it is paid attention, it will be seen that he did not say hereI will make lawful a part of that which has been forbidden to you in the Torah”. There is no “in the Torah” in the expression. This means that the things that were made haram/forbidden to the Israelites were made by their chiefs. Here, removal of a judgment from the Torah etc. is not in question.

– It is also a reality that there are prohibitions even thought they are not normally haram/forbidden which were enforced as a punishment to the Israelites. With Prophet Jesus, such prohibitions are abolished.

Surah An-Nisa 160, 161:

160,161Then, for the unjust behaviors of those who had become Jews, their efforts to avert many people from the path of Allah, that they took Riba [obtaining revenues without effort, service and risk] although it was forbidden to them and their consumption of wealth of the people without right, We made haram/forbidden that which had been made halal/permissible to them. And We have prepared a painful punishment for the infidels; those who consciously denied the divinity of Allah and the fact that He is Rabb from among those that had become Jews.

This topic is available in the sources that narrate the life of Prophet Jesus as well. Jesus confirmed those subjects from the Torah that are also included in the Bible and abolished the rest considering them as dust and dirt.

Matthew 5; 17:

Let there be no thought that I have come to put an end to the law or the prophets. I have not come for destruction, but to make complete.

Matthew 23; 1-7:

: Then Jesus said to the people and to his disciples:
The scribes and the Pharisees have the authority of Moses;
All things, then, which they give you orders to do, these do and keep: but do not take their works as your example, for they say and do not.
They make hard laws and put great weights on men’s backs; but they themselves will not put a finger to them.
But all their works they do so as to be seen by men: for they make wide their phylacteries, and the edges of their robes,
And the things desired by them are the first places at feasts, and the chief seats in the Synagogues,
And words of respect in the market-places, and to be named by men, Teacher.

 

Our Rabb has, through the Messenger, abolished what the Jews prohibited for themselves and the punishments enforced for them.

Surah Al-A’raf 156, 157:

156,157Allah says: “I have My punishment; I will touch with it whom I will, and I have My Mercy; that encompasses everything. I will decree it especially to those who enter under guardianship of Allah, those who give zaqah; tax and who believe in Our Ayat; and those who follow the Messenger, the Prophet who is from the Mother City/Mecca who orders them the good, forbids them from evil, allows them that which is clean and pleasant and prohibits for them that which is filthy and evil, relieves them of their burden, ties and chains which were upon them; whom they can find written in the Torah and in the Bible which are with them. Therefore, those who believe in him, show him a strong respect, support him and follow the light sent down with him will be the ones who will succeed”.

 

One of the issues that must be emphasized here is the topic of “Table” mentioned in Surah Al-Ma’idah Ayat 112-115. In the Ayat whether a table has been sent down or not is not explained. In the current falsified Bibles, there is no statement in relation to this subject. But the rumor mechanism does not stop and produces things: Table was sent down. There was a fish on the table without scales and bones. Besides there were salt, vegetables, vinegar, bread with butter, honey, cheese, olive, and pastrami”. “On the table, there were seven muffins and seven fishes”, “The table was a fish that yielded the taste of all the foods in the world”. The table was of the blessings of the paradise”. “The table had bread, rice, and vegetables”. “The Apostles kept eating from this table. Later on, someone stole from the table and it no longer descended.” etc. and many more groundless and baseless words were fabricated.

According to our opinion, no table was sent down because there is a punishment in the Ayat as follows: “Indeed, I am the One Who will send it down to you. And whoever from among you disbelieves after this, I will punish him with a punishment by which I have never punished anyone among the mankind”.

According to us, it is the Wahy [Revelation] which will guide to the righteous path; that is to say, Bible.

Jesus’ bringing of the good tidings regarding the messenger who will come after him as well as his nativity without father (but with sperm and ovum even though he was fatherless) through the revelation given to him are also sign of Allah.

In this case, there is no miracle shown by Prophet Jesus other than the receving of the revelations; descend of a book to him. These are already the miracles belonging to Allah.

Surah Al-An’am 109:

109And those who associate others with Allah swore by Allah with their strongest oaths that they would certainly believe in it if an evidence/a sign came to them. Say: “Evidences/signs are only with Allah”. Do you not understand that they would not believe even if evidences/signs came to them?

Surah Al-Ankabut 50, 51:

50And they said: “Why have not evidences/signs been sent down to him from his Rabb?”. Say: “Evidences/signs are only with Allah. I am only an explicit warner”.

51And is it not sufficient for them that We have revealed to you the Book that is recited to them? There is absolutely a mercy and a reminder in this for a people who believe.

Surah Al-Isra 59:

59And nothing has prevented Us from sending evidences/signs except that former ones denied them. And We clearly and apparently assigned Thamud the duty of establishing social support institutions but they treated unjustly because of it. And We send those evidences/signs only as a warning.

MIRACLES (!) GIVEN TO MOSES

It is specified in the Qur’an that nine Ayat; evidences, signs were given to Moses.

Surah Al-Isra 101:

101And surely, We gave Moses nine explicit; many Ayat [evidence/sign] – ask Israelites – .When Moses came to them and Pharaoh said to him: “O Moses! I certainly know that you are affected by magic”.

Surah An-Naml 12:

“And engage the power within your chest, in nine Ayat [evidences/signs] you will come out to Pharaoh and his people flawlessly and perfectly. Indeed, they are a transgressing people”.

 

In the classical understanding, these “nine Ayat [evidences;signs]” are considered as nine miracles. They are listed as extracting water from a boulder, staff becoming a snake-dragon, his hand spreading light, flood, the louse outbreak, frog and grasshopper invasion, transformation of water into blood and splitting of the sea. However, it is seen that the penalties in the passages regarding Moses in order to warn the Israelites, like the flood, the louse outbreak, frog and grasshopper invasion, transformation of water into blood are much more than nine. They are nothing but a bit of punishment sent by our Rabb as a warning. They are not related to being an evidence for the prophethood of Moses.

Surah Ar-Rum 41:

41Corruption has emerged on the land and at the sea because of that which they have earned with their hands to make them taste some of which they have done so that perhaps the people will return.

 

Then, the question of how to understand this “nine Ayat [evidences;signs]” expression emerges.

The answer is as follows:

It is possible to understand number “nine” as in the same meaning with “many”, while it is also possible that the renowned “ten commandments” principle in laws of Moses is given within nine Ayat (in the clause of Torah):

PROF DR. BAKI ADAM STATES ON PAGE 104 OF HIS BOOK ENTITLED “TORAH ACCORDING TO THE JEWISH SOURCES”, HIS DOCTORATE THESIS, PUBLISHED BY SEBA PUBLICATIONS IN 1997 AS FOLLOWS.

 

The expressions “You will not have other deities but Me You” and “you will not carve idols for yourself” which are mentioned as two different imperative sentences in the Jewish Torah, are expressed as a single imperative sentence in the Samaritan Torah. Thus, number of the commands, including the one that states, “you shall not covet your neighbor’s house”, is ten in the Jewish Torah and nine in the Samaritan Torah.

 

After the demonstration of the evidence of the prophethood given to the Messenger, let’s analyze the miracles (!), which are accepted to be granted to Prophet Moses, through the Qur’an.

The miracle of Asa (Staff): (!)

In the passages regarding Moses in the Qur’an, a staff is mentioned. This word in the passages is accepted as a “walking stick” in the hand of Moses and skills like the transformation of this staff into a snake, dragon, its swallowing of the staffs and threads of the magicians, its split of the sea, and its bringing water out of a boulder are narrated. Let us now analyze what this “Asa” is.

 

ASA

In order to understand the narrations regarding Moses in the Qur’an correctly, it is necessary to go further than the prejudices which occured occurred by the influence of the Judaism and to find the true meanings of the words used by our Rabb in these narrations. One of them is the word of “asa”. As, according to the order of the revelation of the Surat, the word “asa” first takes place in the Surah Al-A’raf 107-108, we would like to analyze it here.

Surah Al-A’raf 107,108:

107,108Then Moses threw his knowledge forth and it obviously became “a devourer”. And he pulled out his strength and put it open; then his strength was excellent and perfect for the audience.

Asa

The word “Asa” means in fact “gathering and accord”. The word Asa, as the hand and fingers gather on it, became the name of “Ud” (Ud, the instrument). Esmai narrates from some people of Basra as follows:

“The reason for naming walking stick as “Asa” is that the hand and the fingers gather on it. This word is derived from the saying of the Arabs that they utter when they gather people over something good or evil, “asavtu’l kavme, e’suhum (I brought the society together; bring them together)”.”

The expression of “leaving Asa” means as a metaphor “the end of a journey, arrival of the traveler to his destination and building his tent; settlement”.[6]

According to these remarks, the exact meaning of asa is “ACCUMULATION; that which is held tight”. With this meaning, it also defines “the Qur’an” exactly. When this word is attributed to Moses, it means “the accumulation/knowledge of Moses” which – as can be understood from the verses– represents the “revelations sent to Moses and his empirical know-how.

The summary of what was revealed to Moses and his own accumulation is given in the beginning of Surah Ta-Ha in the Ayat 11-16 as “11Then, when he came to it, he was called: “Moses! 12I, it is I Who is your Rabb. So, leave the people who are close to you and your belongings here, indeed, you are in the purified valley, in Tuwa/a valley cleaned twice. 13And I have chosen you; then heed that which will be revealed to you; heed the 14warning of “14Surely, I am Allah Himself. There is no deity except Me. Then worship me and establish Salah [establish and maintain the institutions that support financially and spiritually; enlighten the community] to remember me. 15Indeed, that hour/the Qiyamat [Resurrection] will come. I will almost conceal it so that everyone may be recompensed for his work. 16So, do not let one who does not believe in Qiyamat [Resurrection] and follows his vain, transitory desire avert you from believing in Qiyamat [Resurrection]; or you will be manipulated/destroyed””. It is understood that Moses conveyed these principles and discussed so they may be accepted.

The fact that it became the name of a walking stick is not only because of that hand and fingers gather on it but also “many benefits such as leaning on it, shaking off branches and using it as a weapon or pickax etc”.

The word “Asa” is mentioned six times in the Qur’an.

Now, let us analyze the word “asa” mentioned in the Qur’an.

Shepherd’s Asa

“Asa” in the Surah Ta-Ha, Ayah 18 is “the shepherd’s staff (asa)”. Our Rabb made Moses leave this staff in the first revelation.

Others stand for the “know-how and knowledge of Moses that he learned empirically and from the revelations”. The “asa” that Moses used against Pharaoh to cross the water and to put in order the stonyhearted Israelites is actually the “knowledge of Moses”; what was revealed to him, what he had learned and experienced to that time.

If the Ayat are read within the framework of these measures, we believe that they will be understood accurately.

Asa, Transforming into Snake

Surah Ta Ha 20-23:

20Then, he put it down immediately/adopted a sedentary life and he marveled at once! What was in his right hand; the book that is revealed to him is a running and living soul; it is the source of the social life.

25Moses 20said: “My Rabb! 25Open my chest, 26facilitate my work 33so we may purify you from all deficiencies 34and remember you frequently. 27Untie my tongue 28so they may understand my word well. 29And from my family; 30my brother Aaron; 29make him a minister for me, 31increase my strength with him. 32Make him share my task. 35Indeed, You see us”.

36Allah said: “O Moses! You have been granted what you request”.

21Allah said: “21Hold it, do not fear 23so We may show you of our greatest evidences/signs! We will return it in its first condition. 22Add it to your strength/wing as another evidence/sign, you will come out perfectly and flawlessly without ugliness”.

In these Ayat, two evidences/signs given to Moses are mentioned. The first of these is the Wahy [revelations] given to his right hand instead of the shepherd’s staff, the book, the Torah. Second is his spare power that would add strength to his strength when necessary; Aaron. We will see in the following Ayat that Moses’ ability to express was not sufficient and he wanted his brother Aaron as a helper in order to express himself and that this request was given to Moses.

 

Hayyah

The word “Hayyah” is one of the terms that have critical importance in the proper comprehension of the passage about Moses passage. Therefore, we wish to provide details about this word.

Derived from the word “Hayat”, “hayyah” means “to live once”. Arabs use this word with many examples:

Snake is called hayyah due to its long lifespan.

Anyone who happens to have sharp sight is called “he sees better than hayyah”.

Anyone who is malevolent-insidious is called “he is more cruel than hayyah”.

Those who are beneficial and protective to their community are called “they are the hayyah of the earth/their region”.

Those who live long, whether female or male, is called “she/he is such a hayyah”.

When an individual culminates in intellect, mental capacity, and genius, he/she is called “she/he is the hayyah of the valley”.

Hayyah, in the context of simile, is used to describe the stars that lie between the twin quasar of the constellation Ursa Major and Alcaid [the dead/dormant star].[7]

Tahhiyah/salutation [May Allah give you a long life] is derived from the same root as well.

In short, meaning of this word is “life and vitality”. Basically, “hayyah” does not mean the snake itself, instead it describes the long life of the snake. Also, in Surah Ta-Ha, it was said hayyatun tes’a [a living being that runs continuously]. While this word may be used for those who survived many illnesses, troubles and disasters, it is also used for cats and snakes.

To better comprehend “hayyah”, as mentioned in this Ayah, we should consider a different description of Allah about that which is the right hand of Moses. In Surah an-Naml, Ayah 10 and Surah al-Qasas, Ayah 31, Allah described that which is in the right hand of Moses as “which causes to move like an invisible entity”. That is, that which is in the right hand of Moses resembles an invisible entity causes to move”. So, what is this invisible entity that causes to move? It is the SOUL of humans and animals.

This expression represents the “SOUL” property of the revelations; holy books. As one of the names of the Qur’an is Soul, it is also the name of that which is in the right hand of Moses (the book that was sent down to him). The Qur’an is a book that gives life as well.

Surah Al-Mu’min 15:

15He is the One Who raises the degrees, the owner of the greatest throne/position: He places the revelation which is from His own command/His own affair to whomever He wills of His servants to warn about the day of meeting.

Surah Ash-Shura 52-53:

52,53Thus We have revealed to you the soul/the Qur’an which is of Our own command/affair. You did not know what the book was, what faith was. But We made it a light/soul with which We guide from whomever We will of Our servants. Without a doubt, you also guide to a straight path; the path of Allah for Whom those in the heavens/universe and on the earth are. So open your eyes! All matters return only to Allah.

Surah Al-Anfal 24:

24O you who have believed! When the Messenger invites you to that which gives you life, respond to Allah and the Messenger. And know that Allah intervenes between man and his heart. And you will absolutely be gathered before Him.

In the case the word hayyah in the Ayah 20 is interpreted as “the snake”, the term “fear” in the Ayah 21 will naturally be interpreted as “fearing the snake”.

Yet, the fear mentioned here is the fear of Moses for his duties as mentioned in the Ayat 45 and 46 of this same Surah and also in Surah Ash-Shu’ara 10-15, Surah An-Naml 10 and Surah Al-Qasas 30.

Surah Ash-Shu’ara 10-17:

10Once your Rabb said to Moses: “Go to those people who do wrong; act against their own good; 11the people of Pharaoh, will they not enter under the guardianship of Allah?”

12Moses said: “My Rabb! Indeed I fear that they will deny me. 13My chest tightens, my tongue does not speak, so make Aaron a messenger as well. 14And there is a crime upon me that belongs to them. I fear that they will kill me because of it”.

15Allah said: “Certainly not as you think! Now, you both go with Our evidences/signs. Surely, We are with you, We are the Ones Who hear. 16,17Now, you both go to Pharaoh and say ‘Indeed We are the messengers of your Rabb so that you will send Israelites with us’”.

Surah An-Naml 8-12:

8-12And when he came there, he was called: “Blessed is the one who is in and next to the fire! And Allah, Rabb of all universes is purified from all deficiencies!

“O Moses! Surely, I am Allah Who is the most exalted, the most powerful, the most honorable, the invincible/the subduer, the best law maker, the One Who precludes corruption best/makes incorruptible!

“And bring forward your knowledge! – When he saw it which causes to move like an invisible entity, he fled away. – O Moses, do not fear! Indeed I; the messengers do not fear in My presence. But whoever does wrong; acts against his own good, then turns it to good after evil, indeed I am very forgiving, the possessor of much mercy. –

“And engage the power within your chest, in nine Ayat [evidences/signs] you will come out to Pharaoh and his people flawlessly and perfectly. Indeed, they are a transgressing people”.

Surah Al-Qasas 30-32:

30-32And when he arrived there, he was called from a tree, from the right side of the valley that was located in that fertile piece of land: “O Moses! Indeed, I am Allah, Rabb of all universes! And bring forward your knowledge! – And when he saw his knowledge which moves like an invisible entity, he ran away. – O Moses! Come closer, do not fear. Indeed, you are of those who are safe. Engage the strength you have in your chest, you will definitely come out perfectly. Draw your wing to yourself from fear. These are two evidences from your Rabb against Pharaoh and his men. Indeed they have become a people who have gone astray from the righteous path”.

Surah Ta-Ha 45, 46:

45Moses and Aaron said: “Our Rabb! We fear that he will treat unlawfully against us or that he will transgress”.

46Allah said: “Do not fear, surely I am with both of you, I hear and see.

Subject of the verb “tahruju” [will come out] that is mentioned in the Ayah 22 is not “the hand” but “you”. This expression was confused since the “second singular male personal pronoun” and “third singular female personal pronoun” of the verb forms is the same. What meant here is the engagement of Aaron by Moses, who was assigned to assist Moses, to convey his messages flawlessly, perfectly and completely.

Asa Transforming into a Dragon

Surah Al-A’raf 106-108:

106Pharaoh said: “If you have come with evidence, then bring it forth if you are one of those who tell the truth”.

107,108Then Moses threw his knowledge forth and it obviously became “a devourer”. And he pulled out his strength and put it open; then his strength was excellent and perfect for the audience.

Surah Ash-Shu’ara 32:

32Then Moses brought his knowledge forward; and suddenly the knowledge of Moses is an explicit “devourer”.

 

Sub’an

The word “Sub’an” is derived from the word “seab”, meaning of which is “flow of water and blood”. Meandering course of the gullies in the valley and flowing of water through those curved streambeds, curly hair of the beloved one are defined by the poet by using this word. Plural of this word is also in “Sub’an” form. In its singular form, the word “Sub’an” is used as “a long and strong, rat-hunting snake”. [8]

That means, real meaning of “sub’an” is “wiping and dragging along of a flood all that is before it”. The reason for the use of this word to name a snake that hunts rats is that, snakes look like meandering rivers by its length and curly form and they devour any rat they come upon like a flood. The reason to make an analogy for the knowledge of Moses is that the divine Wahy [revelation] will always devour and eliminate all plans and plots; falsehood of the people.

In these Ayat, it is explained that the ideas, theses and falsehood belonging to the enemies of Moses were eliminated when he brought forth his accumulation/knowledge and the truth came out.

Whether we take the word of “Sub’an” in the Ayah as a flood that drags whatever it comes across or as a rat-hunting snake; what is explained here is that the accumulation/knowledge of Moses devoured all what is before it. It is narrated that the ideas and knowledge brought by Moses refuted and abolished the theses of the influential scholars on the day of festival in the competitions conducted in a similar manner with “Open Session” before the Pharaoh and the public. It is because nothing can confront Wahy [Revelation]. This quality is mentioned in many places in the Qur’an.

Surah Al-Mursalat 1-7:

1-7The Ayat of the Qur’an that were sent group by group/division by division and overthrow all what opposes it, revive the peoples, separate the truth and the falsehood as they revive, which reminds as an excuse or a warning, is the evidence that, indeed, with what you are threatened, frightened will definitely occur.

Surah As-Saffat 1-5:

1-5Those Ayat of the Qur’an which are set/set in ranks then shout and drag and then recite reminders after having shouted and dragged are evidences that your God is absolutely the One and the Only. He is Rabb of all that is in the heavens/universe and on the earth and all that is between. He is Rabb of the easts as well.

Surah Adh-Dhariyat 1-6:

1-6Those which scatter dust, then haul the weight, then flow easily and then distribute a command is the evidence that with what you have been threatened is definitely true. Surely, recompense of what have been done will be fulfilled.

Surah An-Nazi’at 1-3,26:

1-5Gravitational force in the universe, repulsive force in the universe,

stars; galaxies; the sun, the moon and their floating around themselves and in the orbits around the star that they belong to, and thus the formation of the night, the day, and other conditions for life, tide, the night-the day, the seasons,

arranging the conditions of life for all kinds of living creatures and plants are the evidences,

the Ayat of the Qur’an which;

impose a constant distress, depression and remorse for those who consciously deny the divinity of Allah and the fact that He is Rabb,

are easy and facilitate for the believers, give good tidings to them, make them happy,

are conveyed from hand to hand, through words and hearts, always prevail, make them pay attention and arrange all personal and social matters, have orders and prohibitions for every matter; set forth principles; are evidences that,

26indeed, there is a lesson for those who will fear in awe with respect, love, knowledge in that “the infidel; the one who consciously denies the divinity of Allah and the fact that He is Rabb will say, ‘I wish I were a dust’” on the day when one who will observe what his two strengths/wealth and acquaintances will present/will face what he did.

Falsehood is destined to destruction.

Surah Al-Isra 81:

81And say: “Truth has come, falsehood has perished. Indeed, falsehood will perish”.

Falsehood is destroyed with the truth.

Surah Al-Anbiya 18:

18Rather, We dash the truth upon falsehood and it destroys it. Then you see that the falsehood has perished. O woe to you for what you ascribe to Allah!

It is explained by our Rabb in the Surah Yunus, how Moses was made to win and what the staff (accumulation/knowledge) of him was.

 

Surah Yunus 79-82:

79And Pharaoh said: “Bring me all scholars who are the most knowledgeable, who speak influential words!”.

80And when the scholars who speak influential words came, Moses said to them: “Throw whatever you will throw!”.

81,82And when they threw Moses said, “That which you have brought is an illusion/a deception. Surely, Allah will disclose that it is fake and useless. No doubt that Allah does not amend the works of corrupters. And Allah establishes the truth by His words and implements it even though sinners do not like”.

 

As it is seen, the staff was construed in these Ayat as “the words of Allah”.

The Sea which is mentioned in the passages related to Moses

Another important factor to understand the passages about Moses in the Qur’an accurately is to know the words of “bahr” and “yamm” mentioned in these passages accurately.

As these two words are generally translated as “sea”; it is naturally accepted that Moses took the Israelites through the Red Sea and that the Pharaoh and his people were drowned in the Red Sea.

Actually, the Qur’an and the Arabic language do not allow this. In order for us to understand the reality, we are presenting the actual meaning of these words.

Bahr

“Bahr” means “a huge amount of water, whether fresh or salty”. This word is the antonym of “land”. The original meaning of this word is “to split”. It was named like this because the water splits the land. In the ancient Arabic poetry, the Euphrates was named as a bahr. It is common to define large saltwater bodies [seas] as bahr. [9]

The word Bahr appears in those Surat that are related to Moses: Surah Al-Baqara 50, Surah Al-A’raf 138, Surah Yunus 90, Surah Ta-Ha 77, Surah Ash-Shu’ara 63 and Surah Ad-Ad-Dukhan 24.

Yamm

“Yamm” means “bahr/a huge amount of water”. Leys defined this word as “a sea, depth and limits of which are unknown”. However, this suggestion cannot be true as in the Surah Ta-Ha Ayah 39 of the Qur’an, it is explicitly stated that it was inspired to the mother of Moses to leave the baby to “Yamm” and the chest of Moses cast to a bank in “Yamm”. Hence, Moses was set into the Nile and the chest stranded to the coastline of the Nile.

This word is believed to have been borrowed into Arabic from Syriac.[10]

This word appears in the Surah Al-A’raf 136, Surah Ta-Ha 39 (twice); 78,97, Surah Al-Qasas 7, 40 and Surah Adh-Dhariyat 40.

When the places where Moses and his family and also Pharaoh lived are considered, the words bahr and yamm which are mentioned in the passages that are related to Moses should be translated as “a large body of water/the river”. According to this, it can be seen that Pharaoh drowned in the same waters in which Moses was placed when he was a baby, but not in a sea/the Red Sea.

Above, we have stated that it is specified in the archaic dictionaries that the word “yamm” was taken from Syriac to the Arabic language. We understand that this is very likely as “sea” is called “yam” in Hebrew. It is not already expected from the Bedouins Arabs who had never seen a sea in their lives to give a name to the sea. Objects are named by those who interact with them. This is seen clearly when the names of the natural and artificial objects in the entire world are examined.

In the present Holy Scriptures, it was translated in some parts as “sea”, “Red Sea” and “Reed Sea” in some others. For example:

Psalms; Psalm 136, clauses 11- 16

136:11 And took out Israel from among them: for his mercy is unchanging for ever:
136:12 With a strong hand and an outstretched arm: for his mercy is unchanging for ever.
136:13 To him who made a way through the Sea of the Reeds: for his mercy is unchanging for ever:
136:14 And let Israel go through it: for his mercy is unchanging for ever:
136:15 By him Pharaoh and his army were overturned in the Sea of the Reeds: for his mercy is unchanging for ever.
136:16 To him who took his people through the waste land: for his mercy is unchanging for ever.

Exodus 14. Chapter.

14:1 And the Lord said to Moses,
14:2 Give orders to the children of Israel to go back and put up their tents before Pi-hahiroth, between Migdol and the sea, in front of Baal-zephon, opposite to which you are to put up your tents by the sea.
14:3 And Pharaoh will say of the children of Israel, They are wandering without direction, they are shut in by the waste land.
14:4 And I will make Pharaoh’s heart hard, and he will come after them and I will be honoured over Pharaoh and all his army, so that the Egyptians may see that I am the Lord. And they did so.
14:5 And word came to Pharaoh of the flight of the people: and the feeling of Pharaoh and of his servants about the people was changed, and they said, Why have we let Israel go, so that they will do no more work for us?
14:6 So he had his war-carriage made ready and took his people with him:
14:7 And he took six hundred carriages, all the carriages of Egypt, and captains over all of them.
14:8 And the Lord made the heart of Pharaoh hard, and he went after the children of Israel: for the children of Israel had gone out without fear.
14:9 But the Egyptians went after them, all the horses and carriages of Pharaoh, and his horsemen, and his army, and overtook them in their tents by the sea, by Pihahiroth, before Baal-zephon.
14:10 And when Pharaoh came near, the children of Israel, lifting up their eyes, saw the Egyptians coming after them, and were full of fear; and their cry went up to God.
14:11 And they said to Moses, Was there no resting-place for the dead in Egypt, that you have taken us away to come to our death in the waste land? why have you taken us out of Egypt?
14:12 Did we not say to you in Egypt, Let us be as we are, working for the Egyptians? for it is better to be the servants of the Egyptians than to come to our death in the waste land.
14:13 But Moses said, Keep where you are and have no fear; now you will see the salvation of the Lord which he will give you today; for the Egyptians whom you see today you will never see again.
14:14 The Lord will make war for you, you have only to keep quiet.
14:15 And the Lord said to Moses, Why are you crying out to me? give the children of Israel the order to go forward.
14:16 And let your rod be lifted up and your hand stretched out over the sea, and it will be parted in two; and the children of Israel will go through on dry land.
14:17 And I will make the heart of the Egyptians hard, and they will go in after them: and I will be honoured over Pharaoh and over his army, his war-carriages, and his horsemen.
14:18 And the Egyptians will see that I am the Lord, when I get honour over Pharaoh and his war-carriages and his horsemen.
14:19 Then the angel of God, who had been before the tents of Israel, took his place at their back; and the pillar of cloud, moving from before them, came to rest at their back:
14:20 And it came between the army of Egypt and the army of Israel; and there was a dark cloud between them, and they went on through the night; but the one army came no nearer to the other all the night.
14:21 And when Moses’ hand was stretched out over the sea, the Lord with a strong east wind made the sea go back all night, and the waters were parted in two and the sea became dry land.
14:22 And the children of Israel went through the sea on dry land: and the waters were a wall on their right side and on their left.
14:23 Then the Egyptians went after them into the middle of the sea, all Pharaoh’s horses and his war-carriages and his horsemen.
14:24 And in the morning watch, the Lord, looking out on the armies of the Egyptians from the pillar of fire and cloud, sent trouble on the army of the Egyptians;
14:25 And made the wheels of their war-carriages stiff, so that they had hard work driving them: so the Egyptians said, Let us go in flight from before the face of Israel, for the Lord is fighting for them against the Egyptians.
14:26 And the Lord said to Moses, Let your hand be stretched out over the sea, and the waters will come back again on the Egyptians, and on their war-carriages and on their horsemen.
14:27 And when Moses’ hand was stretched out over the sea, at dawn the sea came flowing back, meeting the Egyptians in their flight, and the Lord sent destruction on the Egyptians in the middle of the sea.
14:28 And the waters came back, covering the war-carriages and the horsemen and all the army of Pharaoh which went after them into the middle of the sea; not one of them was to be seen.
14:29 But the children of Israel went through the sea walking on dry land, and the waters were a wall on their right side and on their left.
14:30 So that day the Lord gave Israel salvation from the hands of the Egyptians; and Israel saw the Egyptians dead on the sea’s edge.
14:31 And Israel saw the great work which the Lord had done against the Egyptians, and the fear of the Lord came on the people and they had faith in the Lord and in his servant Moses.

 

 

Split of the sea with the asa (staff)

Surah Ash-Shu’ara 63:

63Then We revealed to Moses: “Hit that large body of water/river with your knowledge!”. Then that large body of water/river was split/dams were set and each dam became like a great mountain.

Note: This Ayah must actually be arranged in the Mushaf after the Ayat 50 and 51. Its arrangement as Ayah 63 causes misunderstanding of the Ayah and formation of wrong beliefs.

Surah Al-Baqara 50:

50And when We split open the large body of water/the river to save your lives and drowned the people close to Pharaoh while you were looking on.

What is narrated in these Ayat is that Moses was revealed to build dams over the Nile using his knowledge and then the water was split into parts like the mountains; that is to say, high dams were built. So, Moses did not make mountain-like waters at both sides by means of splitting the Red Sea. Moses built dams on the Nile with his knowledge and each dam was as high as a mountain. This is what is explained here. Later on, this dam is demolished and the Pharaoh and his people will be killed in the flood of the dam.

Oldest known dam was the 15 meters high dam that was built over the Nile in ca. 2900 B.C. According to the explicit expression of the Qur’an, there were multiple dams.

As can be understood from the other Ayat, Moses, during the period of his stay in Egypt, concealed his actual intention and split the river with dams, made canals in the plains, and made waterbeds available for agriculture. This is why the Pharaoh says: “Do not the rivers that flow beneath me belong to me?”

In this Ayah, other periods from the past of the Israelites are reminded as well. These periods:

Splitting of the water; establishment of dams, salvation of the Israelites, and drowning of the close people of Pharaoh in the water before the eyes of the Israelites. Later on, Moses took his people and those among Copts who believed in him with him and made them pass through these places and pulled the Pharaoh and his army who were pursuing them to these agricultural areas and then ensured that the Pharaoh and his army were drowned, by demolishing the dams when they were there.

Here, these events were expressed in a short sentence. We do not think that all these happened in a few hours. This event took place in a process of many years.

Another point that draws attentions here is that drowning of the Pharaoh and his people was seen and watched by the Israelites and this is narrated in the Holy Scripture as follows:

Exodus 14. Chapter. 25-31st sentences

 

14:25 And made the wheels of their war-carriages stiff, so that they had hard work driving them: so the Egyptians said, Let us go in flight from before the face of Israel, for the Lord is fighting for them against the Egyptians.
14:26 And the Lord said to Moses, Let your hand be stretched out over the sea, and the waters will come back again on the Egyptians, and on their war-carriages and on their horsemen.
14:27 And when Moses’ hand was stretched out over the sea, at dawn the sea came flowing back, meeting the Egyptians in their flight, and the Lord sent destruction on the Egyptians in the middle of the sea.
14:28 And the waters came back, covering the war-carriages and the horsemen and all the army of Pharaoh which went after them into the middle of the sea; not one of them was to be seen.
14:29 But the children of Israel went through the sea walking on dry land, and the waters were a wall on their right side and on their left.
14:30 So that day the Lord gave Israel salvation from the hands of the Egyptians; and Israel saw the Egyptians dead on the sea’s edge.
14:31 And Israel saw the great work which the Lord had done against the Egyptians, and the fear of the Lord came on the people and they had faith in the Lord and in his servant Moses.

It is understood here that this event of drowning did not take place in the Red Sea because it is not possible to see their drowning and dead bodies from one side of the sea to another in about one hundred kilometers of distance.

 

Jetting of twelve springs from the stone with asa

Surah Al-A’raf 160:

160And We divided them into twelve tribes who are led by grandsons. And when his people asked him for water, We revealed to Moses: “Implement your knowledge upon your stonyhearted people”. Then his stonyhearted people divided into twelve nations/people. Each of those people learned well/marked where they receive water. And We shaded them with clouds. We sent down to them manna and honey/quail; “Eat from the pure of those blessings We have provided you!”. They did not treat us unjustly, they were acting unjustly to themselves.

Surah Al-Baqara 60:

60And when Moses asked for water for his people and We said to him: “Implement your experience upon your stonehearted people!”. Then, twelve groups/people of cities were divided into many directions from his stonehearted people. The people of each city learned/marked where they would obtain their water. –Eat and drink from the provision of Allah and do not transgress on the earth by causing corruption.-

 

Our analysis here applies to both Ayat.

Stone

We have learned very well in the Ayat above that “asa” is the “knowledge of Moses”. Now, let us deal with what the “stone” that Moses hits with his knowledge. As it is known, “stone” is the symbol of hardness/strictness. Our Rabb informed that the hearts of the Israelites were like stones, even harder. Therefore, “the stonyhearted Israelites” were meant with “stone”.

Surah Al-Baqara: 74

74Then your hearts became hardened; like stones, even harder. And surely, there are such stones from which rivers emerge, and there are such stones that split open and waters come out, and there are such stones that fall because of fearing Allah in awe with respect, love, knowledge. Allah is not unaware of nor apathetic to what you do.

Darb

As explained in the dictinories Lisan al-Arab and Taj al-Arus, the “literal” meaning of darb is “to form something upon something else”. Starting from this “actual” meaning, this word is used in hundreds of meanings such as “to hit, to clash, to split, to squeeze, to set off, heartbeat, pulse, to exemplify” etc.

The word means, as used herein, “to form something upon something else”.

In this Ayat, another issue is the word “ayn”. In regards to this word, following information is given in the archaic dictionaries:

Ayn

Also, as explained in the dictinories Lisan al-Arab and Taj al-Arus, this word has more than hundred meanings such as “sight, eye, sun, spring, rain, commodity, gold, human, life, COMMUNITY, PEOPLE OF A REGION”…

For whatever reason, the word ayn in these verses has always been translated as “the spring”. Yet, in the passages about Moses, “community, the people of the region” meaning should have been preferred. It is because our Rabb pointed out that it must be understood this way with the expression “And We divided them into twelve tribes who are led by grandsons” in the beginning of the Ayah.

We see it in the Surah Al-Ma’idah clearly.

Surah Al-Ma’idah 12:

12And surely, Allah took the solemn covenant of Israelites. And We sent from among them twelve supervisors/leaders. And Allah said: “I am surely with you. If you establish Salah [establish and maintain the institutions that support financially and spiritually; enlighten the community], give zaqah/tax, believe in My messengers, support them and loan Allah a good loan, I will definitely remove your evil deeds and admit you into the gardens of Jannah [Heaven/Paradise], underneath of which rivers flow. And whoever among you disbelieves; consciously denies the divinity of Allah and the fact that He is Rabb after this, he has certainly gone astray from the righteous path”.

 

Division of Israelites into twelve groups/tribes and assigning of a governor for each of them is also mentioned in the Holy Scripture. This means, the Qur’an confirms this part of the Holy Scripture.

Numbers; Chapter 1, clauses 1- 16:

1:1 And the Lord said to Moses in the waste land of Sinai, in the Tent of meeting, on the first day of the second month, in the second year after they came out of the land of Egypt,
1:2 Take the full number of the children of Israel, by their families, and by their fathers’ houses, every male by name;
1:3 All those of twenty years old and over, who are able to go to war in Israel, are to be numbered by you and Aaron.
1:4 And to give you help, take one man from every tribe, the head of his father’s house.
1:5 These are the names of those who are to be your helpers: from Reuben, Elizur, the son of Shedeur;
1:6 From Simeon, Shelumiel, the son of Zurishaddai;
1:7 From Judah, Nahshon, the son of Amminadab;
1:8 From Issachar, Nethanel, the son of Zuar;
1:9 From Zebulun, Eliab, the son of Helon;
1:10 Of the children of Joseph: from Ephraim, Elishama, the son of Ammihud; from Manasseh, Gamaliel, the son of Pedahzur,
1:11 From Benjamin, Abidan, the son of Gideoni;
1:12 From Dan, Ahiezer, the son of Ammi-shaddai;
1:13 From Asher, Pagiel, the son of Ochran;
1:14 From Gad, Eliasaph, the son of Reuel;
1:15 From Naphtali, Ahira, the son of Enan.
1:16 These are the men named out of all the people, chiefs of their fathers’ houses, heads of the tribes of Israel.

 

We also need to emphasize the expression “Implement your knowledge upon your stonyhearted people”, which is mentioned in these Ayat. As can be understood from the lines mentioned in those Ayat; “And when his people asked him for water”, “Each of those people learned well/marked where they receive water”, “and when Moses asked for water for his people”; people of Moses suffered water shortage. There have been problems among them because of water. At that time as well, our Rabb revealed to Moses to use his knowledge/experience.

As it may be remembered, Moses had learnt what water shortage might cost by the Midian water when he escaped from Egypt and went to Midian. He had experiences in this regard. This matter is detailed in the Surah Al-Qasas:

Surah Al-Qasas 23-25:

    23And when Moses arrived to the water of Midian, he found a people with a leader who were watering their flocks. And Moses found two women, who were not as strong as other people watering their flocks, and pulling their flock back. He said: “What is the matter with you?”. They said: “We will not water our flock before the shepherds water their flocks and go; and our father is a very old man”.

24Then Moses watered their flock. Then he went to the shade and said: “My Rabb! I am definitely in need for whatever good you bestow upon me”.

25Then one of two women shyly came to Moses. She said: “Indeed my father invites you so that he may pay you for having watered”. Moses came to her father and told him the story. Her father said: “Do not fear, you are safe from that people who did wrong; acted against their own good by associating others with Allah”.

All these mean that Moses divided Israelites into twelve locations as twelve communities due to the fact that living all together of such a big community would cause problems. And thus he solved the water shortage problem. As it is known, settlements are founded by waterside, riverside.

Opening a dry path in the sea

Surah Ta-Ha 77-79:

77And surely We revealed to Moses: “Make my servants walk by night without fearing to be caught and without fearing in awe with respect and love/without being grateful to Pharaoh and make a dry path for them in the large body of water/the river!”.

78Pharaoh followed them with his armies at once and there covered them from the large body of water/the river which covered them.

79And Pharaoh led his people astray and did not guide them to the righteous path.

Conveyed in these Ayat is that Moses was revealed to make his people work for making dry paths on the Nile without fearing to be caught and without fearing in awe with respect and love/without being grateful to Pharoah; then Pharaoh who followed them have drown in the Nile with his army.

The point in the Ayat that draws attention is that, the path on the large body of water would be carried out by walking at night. This expression clearly means to finish this work slowly without being noticed by anyone and by making people work at night.

According to the expressions in the Qur’an, these events did not happen within minutes or hours but in a rather long time. When Prophet Moses returned to Egypt, he worked safely for years within his people under the rule of Pharaoh.

When the expressions in Surah Al-Qasas Ayah 14, “And when Moses grew up to have his strength and was mature, We gave him judgement and knowledge” are taken into account, and as such age of maturity was specified in Surah Al-Ahqaf Ayah 15 as “forty years of age” and as history says by rumor that Muhammad also became a prophet at the age of forty, prophethood should have been granted to Moses at the age of forty.

In the 7th clause of Exodus/7th Chapter, the age of Moses when he asked Pharaoh about taking his nation and the believers out of Egypt (this was not his first time he did) was eighty. This means that, after Moses returned to Egypt, he lived in Egypt about forty years until taking them out.

Note: According to the 7th clause of the 34th Chapter of Deuteronomy, Moses died at the age of 120.

The expression of “without fearing in awe with respect and love/without being grateful to Pharaoh” in the Ayat is a warning that what he did and what he would do must not be taken as betrayal and ungratefulness towards Pharaoh. Hence, we see in Surah Ash-Shu’ara that Pharaoh accused Moses of betrayal and ungratefulness and wanted Moses to show respect and gratefulness.

Surah Ash-Shu’ara 18, 19:

18Pharaoh said: “Did we not raise you among us when you were a child? Did you not remain among us for many years of your life? 19Then you did the deed which you did. And you are one of ungrateful…”.

White hand

One of the Ayat/evidence revealed to Moses is “Yad al-Baiza”. This noun phrase has come to be accepted as “a hand that is snow white, that shines” in the classical understanding. This expression takes place in Surah Al-A’raf 107, 108, Surah Ta-Ha 23, Surah Ash-Shu’ara 33, Surah An-Naml 12, and Surah Al-Qasas 32. Analyses of them are as follows:

Yad

“Yad” in the original Ayat is generally translated as “a hand”. The word “Yed” metaphorically means “power, wealth, authority, reign, blessing, bow, all works performed by hand”.

The power, mentioned here is defined as “the power in his pocket/chest” in other Ayat: Surah An-Naml 12, Surah Al-Qasas 32. This power is Aaron.

Baiza

Following information can be found on this word:

“Biyz” means an egg. “Bayaz” means “egg color”. The “bayzae” form of this word expresses “excessive whiteness, brightness”. The sun, a woman with a smooth, white complexion, the bare soil with no plants on it, appearances of the moon on the 14th and 15th nights of the lunar months are all named as “baiza”. The phrase “Yad-i Baiza” represents “anything that is proven; evidence”.[11] According to these explanations, this word can be used as “snow white” which, in turn, is the expression of perfection and flawlessness metaphorically.

The “power” as mentioned in the Ayat is a snow white; flawless, perfect power to those who see it, and it represents the excellency of the talent of Aaron in expression and rhetoric. As it is understood from Surah Ta-Ha, Ayah 28 expressly, the ability of expression of Moses was not good due to lack of his knowledge in Hebrew or a flaw on his tongue. This condition of Moses was taken away by appointing his brother Aaron, as his vizier, secretary and spokesman. We see this clearly in the respective passage of Surah Ta-Ha.

Taking the Israelites through the water –drowning of the Pharaoh and his people being dragged away by the flood – Releasing the sea quickly.

Surah Ad-Dukhan 17-24:

    17-21And surely, We had tested the people of Pharaoh before them. And a noble messenger had come to them: “Give back to me the servants of Allah. Indeed, I am a trustworthy messenger who has been sent for you. Do not act haughtily against Allah. Surely, I bring you an explicit authority. And surely, I have sought refuge in my Rabb and your Rabb from that you would stone me to death. And if you do not believe in me, go away from me immediately”.

22Then Moses called to his Rabb, saying: “Surely, these are a criminal people”.

-“23,24Then make My servants walk at night. Surely you are those who are pursued, be cautious. Release the large amount of water/river quickly. Indeed, they are an army drowned in water.-

It is seen in these Ayat that Prophet Moses is given the plans of taking Israelites out of Egypt. There are no details. Moses will make dry paths in the water and kill the Pharaoh and his men, drowning them in the water. Moses had previously committed a murder and was suffering qualms of conscience about it. At this point, Moses was in a deadlock; he was in depression.

He would set off for travels in order to overcome the troubles in his mind and look for a solution to get rid of the depression and would gain knowledge and experience about politics and laws.

We see this section in the Surah Al-Kahf. The story of Moses and the Knowledgeable Servant informs these.

This can be viewed in Surah al-Kahf, Division 296 in the Qur’an.

 

Surah Yunus 90-92:

90-92And We took the Israelites across the large body of water/river. But Pharaoh and his soldiers followed them immediately in transgression and enmity. And when drowning overtook him he said: “I have definitely believed that there is no deity except the One in Whom Israelites believe, I am among those who submitted”. – Now? But you disobeyed before and became of the corrupters. Today We will save you in your armor so you may be a sign for those who will succeed you. – And indeed, many of the people are apathetic/careless to our Ayat/evidences/signs.

Surah Al-Baqara 50:

50And when We split open the large body of water/the river to save your lives and drowned the people close to Pharaoh while you were looking on.

In these Ayat, other periods from the past of the Israelites are reminded. These periods are:

Splitting of water, establishment of the dam, passing of Israelities through the dry areas between the split parts of the water and drowning of the Pharaoh and the people close to him. Here, these events were expressed in a short sentence. As we stated above, we do not think that all these happened and finished in a few hours. This took place in a process of many years.

We can understand clearly from the Qur’an how the event of drowning took place. We have seen earlier that Moses built dams on the river and split the waters of the river like mountains. Moses demolished these dams; and as the people of Sheba were destroyed with the “flood of the dams” (Surah Sheba; Ayat 15-19), Pharaoh and his army were first dragged in the water of the dam and drowned by being covered by the water.

Surah Ad-Dukhan 23, 24:

-“23,24Then make My servants walk at night. Surely you are those who are pursued, be cautious. Release the large amount of water/river quickly. Indeed, they are an army drowned in water.-

Surah Al-Qasas 40:

40We seized him and his soldiers and threw them in that large body of water/in the river. So see how is the end of those who do wrong; act against their own good by associating others with Allah!

Surah Adh-Dhariyat 40:

40Then We seized him and his armies and cast them in the large amount of water/river. And he was blameworthy.

The word “rehven” in the original Ayah 24 of Surah Ad-Dukhan contains both meanings of “silence and excessive movement”. We prioritized “excessive movement; rapid flowing” meaning.

It is because in these Ayat, the Pharaoh and his people were dragged in water for a while before they were drowned.

Surah Al-Qasas 40:

40We seized him and his soldiers and threw them in that large body of water/in the river. So see how is the end of those who do wrong; act against their own good by associating others with Allah!

Surah Adh-Dhariyat 40:

40Then We seized him and his armies and cast them in the large amount of water/river. And he was blameworthy.

Surah Ta-Ha 77-79:

77And surely We revealed to Moses: “Make my servants walk by night without fearing to be caught and without fearing in awe with respect and love/without being grateful to Pharaoh and make a dry path for them in the large body of water/the river!”.

78Pharaoh followed them with his armies at once and there covered them from the large body of water/the river which covered them.

79And Pharaoh led his people astray and did not guide them to the righteous path.

Another point that draws attention here is the expression in Surah al-Baqara Ayah 50 “We drowned the people close to Pharaoh while you were looking on”. As can be understood from here, Israelities saw and watched the drowning of the Pharaoh and his people. This topic is stated in the Holy Scripture as follows:

Exodus 14. Chapter, 30th clause:

14:30 So that day the Lord gave Israel salvation from the hands of the Egyptians; and Israel saw the Egyptians dead on the sea’s edge.

It is understood here that this event of drowning did not take place in the Red Sea because it is not possible to see their drowning and dead bodies from one side of the sea to another in about one hundred kilometers of distance.

In sum, as the evidence of his task as a messenger, only the book was given to Moses and his brother Aaron was assigned to a duty of as a vizier.

The two evidences; signs given to Moses which are mentioned in the Ayat 20-23 here are also summarized in Surah Al-Furqan:

Surah Al-Furqan 35, 36:

35And surely We gave to Moses the Book and appointed his brother Aaron as his assistant and supporter.

36Then We said: “Go to those people who deny Our Ayat!”. Ultimately, We destroyed with a complete destruction those people who denied Our Ayat.

NON-BURNING OF PROPHET ABRAHAM IN FIRE

As we handle the issue of miracle, it is necessary to mention here mandatorily that prophet Abraham was not burned in the fire; in other words, the fire did not burn prophet Abraham. This issue was analyzed in our work called Tebyinu’l Qur’an sufficiently. We are stating the passage in our work herewith:

TOPIC OF BURNING ABRAHAM

This subject must be taken away from the impact of some rumors and analyzed in line with the true meanings of the expressions in the Qur’an. The Ayat regarding the issue take place in three different Surat:

Surah Al-Anbiya 68-70:

68His people said: “Make him burn [fire him, put him into distress] if you are the ones who do and help your gods”.

69We said: “O fire! Be cool and safe for Abraham”.

70And they intended to plot against him but We made them the ones who lose/suffer more.

Surah As-Saffat 97, 98:

97They said: “Build a wall for him/impose an embargo upon him and throw him into the blazing fire/an extreme distress!”.

98They intended to plot for Abraham but We made them the debased.

Surah Al-Ankabut 24:

24Then the answer of the people of Abraham was only that they said: “Kill him or make him burn/put him in extreme distress”. Then, Allah saved him from the fire/distress. Indeed, there are evidences/signs in this for a people who will believe.

In Surah Al-Anbiya 68 and Surah Al-Mu’minun 24, there is the expression “حرّقوهharriquhu”. This has so far been translated as “burn!”. We will analyze this expression:

The word “حرّقواHarriqu” is a plural imperative from the root of “حرقhrq”.

“ح ر قhrq”, the root of the word, comes from the “flame of fire”. Tahriq means “the effect of fire on something”. Burns in eyes as a result of a disease, the pain in the heart relating to diseases; burning of the plants due to the effect of cold, hot, and wind; pain in the mouth as a result of hot and salty food, are expressed with this word.[12]

In this case, this word can be used in the meanings of “giving inconvenience, cruelty, ruining” as well.

In Surah Al-Ankabut 24, the expression of “Kill him or tahriq him [make him burn]” attracts attention. According to this expression, one of two punishments will be imposed on Abraham: Either death or “tahriq”. In “Tahriq”, there is no killing of Abraham. They will not kill him but ruin him.

According to Surah Al-Anbiya 70 and Surah As-Saffat 98, his people made a plan after ruining, making Abraham burn [tahriq]. If they had intended to burn and destroy Abraham, it would have not been necessary to set a trap for him. They must have devised a plan like “How can we torture Abraham, make him suffer and ruin him?”

The words “Jahim” and “Nar” are not at all times used as “fire”, which is their literal meaning. As a metaphor, they are also used as excessive distress.

Surah Al-Takathur 5, 6:

5,6Certainly not as you think! If you know with an absolute knowledge, you will definitely see the blazing fire. 7After a while, you will see it real as if you are seeing with your eyes.

Surah Al-Ma’idah 64:

64And the Jews said: “Allah is stingy”. –They became stingy for what they said and they were cursed.- Quite contrary, Allah is generous; He spends however He wills. And surely, that which has been revealed to you by Allah increases their transgression and disbelief; conscious denial of the divinity of Allah and the fact that He is Rabb. And We cast animosity and hatred among those Jews until Qiyamat [Resurrection]. Whenever they set a fire to fight/corrupt, Allah put it out. And they strive for corruption on the earth. Yet Allah does not like the corrupters.

                                                                                                Hakkı YILMAZ

                                                                                                   istekuran@hotmail.com

                                                                                                   www.istekuran.net

 

[1] Rabb means “The One Who disciplines and educates, One Who guides his creations to a certain target/targets within the frame of a schedule, one who programs and manages the development”. This word, in absolute terms, is used for Allah alone. As to humans, it is used in such forms as “the rabb of the house”, “the rabb of the workplace”, etc. The English term closest to this term in the context of meaning is “boss”. While having a meaning close to rabb, this word does not cover the meaning of rabb entirely as it is used only in the commercial context. For this reason, since we did not have the possibility to explain the term rabb with multiple words, we had to leave it in its original Arabic form. Therefore, our readers should keep the above mentioned definition in their minds.

[2] Collection of the Qur’an into book

[3] Lisan al-Arab; Taj al-Arus, “Mhd” art.

[4] Mushaf al-Sharif; ISAM Publications

[5] Lisan al-Arab, v.3, p.195, 196. “hlq” art.

[6] Lisan al-Arab; “asa” art. Taj al-Arus; “Asa” art.

[7] Lisan al-Arab, “hayyah” art. ; Taj al-Arus, “hayyah” art.

[8] Lisan al-Arab “sab” mad. Taj al-Arus; “sab” art.

[9] Lisan al-Arab, “bhr” art. Taj al-Arus, “bhr” art.

[10] Lisan al-Arab “yamm” art. Taj al-Arus, “yamm” art.)

[11] Lisan al-Arab

[12] Lisan al-Arab, v.2 , p. 404-406

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