31 Jul

THE CONCEPT OF MIRACLE AND THE MIRACLES OF THE PROPHETS

 

THE CONCEPT OF MIRACLE

“Mucize” (Miracle) have been derived from the root of ‘Acz’ in Arabic and is an ismifail, mufred muennes (Arabic word types) word as a form of If’al bab (an Arabic grammar rule) meaning “incapacitating.” With this, “the thing that incapacitating the human reason and might” is meant. In the western languages, it is taken from the Latin word of ‘miraculum’ as ‘Le miracle.’ It means “Something extraordinary, a situation that is splendid (extraordinary).”
Can an event like a “Miracle” be possible in the universe?

Let us consider this in terms of the events in the universe:

DETERMINISM IN NATURE

In determinism, there is no mysterious event and force that is not a subject matter of experiment. Events pursue each other in the universe. That is to say, one event creates another event which creates one another. The universe continues as the chain of events. What creates this event is also another event; not a metaphysic or supernatural force.

Everything in the universe has a reason. Nothing without reason can be. The reason of everything is an event of its own type. The first event is called CAUSE and the second event is called EFFECT. There is a mathematical ratio between cause and effect. When the cause takes place, the effect takes place COMPULSORILY. In the consequence, nothing but cause can be found.

According to this rule, if a strict DETERMINISM is dominant in the universe; that is to say, if everything is in a CAUSE-EFFECT relation, a thing like miracle cannot be present.

Some approached to this issue in terms of contingence in nature and relativity and admitted that these things can happen.

   2- CONTINGENCE IN NATURE

As it is seen above, there is an obligation in determinism. So, when the event of A takes place, the event of B must take place as an obligation. For example, if water is heated up to 100 degrees, water must boil obligatorily.

So the opposite of this obligation is CONTINGENCE. According to this law, when an event of A takes place, the event of B does not necessarily take place.

While strict determinism was accepted in the century XVIII, scientists like Leibniz, and Emile Boutroux proved in our age that not determinism but contingence is available in nature. Bergson, Guenat, Reinke, and Driesch asserted that determinism is not present in the world of living beings and created the movement of VITALISM and combined their thoughts in this regard in their work entitled, ‘Contingence of the Laws of Nature.’

According to the principles of this contingence, it is possible that the EFFECT of an event can take place without the emergence of a miracle or natural cause.

2- RELATIVITY IN NATURE

With the basic concepts of the sciences like physics, chemistry, and mathematics as well as Mayer Principle, Newton laws, and Kepler Principles, studies were conducted on the lifeless matters and considering that such principles were certainly true, determinism’s obligation was admitted.
However, the innovations that take place in the fields of physics and mechanics changed such strict understanding of determinism from its root. A. Einstein (1879-1958) revolutionized physics, chemistry, and mathematics thanks to his Relativity Theory which is also proved in higher mathematics as well.

According to this theory:

  • There is no constant mass. Mass is subject to the speed of the objects.
  • There is no matter, there is energy.
  • The universe is N dimensional, not three dimensional.
  • Time and place are not available outside objectively. They depend on the character and appearance of objects.
  • General gravity is not a force but a geometric property of the universe that is explained with the curvature of space.

In this case, it must be thought that a miracle can take place according to the relativity in nature.

In the world of the living beings, a place for determinism is second to none. There, there is no obligation between reason–outcome, cause–effect. Everything is around contingence. A reaction that is equivalent to action is never encountered. For example, the plants and animals feeding under the same conditions acquire different structures.

In the religion terminology:

 Miracles are the extraordinary (unusual, contrary to the rules of nature) things for the person alleging to be a prophet to exhibit by the consent of Allah in order to prove that this cause of him/her is true.

After defining miracle, the Kalam scholars institutionalized the conditions of this.

CONDITIONS OF A MIRACLE

Miracle is not the personal skill of the person who exhibits it. It is granted to him/her by Allah in order to fulfill his/her duty, prove his/her cause and convince the society.
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In order to consider an event a miracle:

  • It must be carried out without a cause and reason.

       (it must be contrary to determinism.)

  • It must be extraordinary.
  • No one but the person alleging to be a prophet must be able to carry it out.
    The event that takes place must not refute him/her.
  • It must take place in compliance with its objective.
  • It must be in his/her period of prophethood, not earlier life
        • It must be manifest. That is to say, it must take place before the eye of everyone and everyone must see it. It must not be separate from the self of the asserter.

In line with the explanations we have so far included, let us take a look at the miracles (!)  claimed to have been granted to the prophets. As mentioning all the prophets and their miracles attributed to them one by one will prolong the subject matter, let us scrutinize the miracles attributed to Jesus, Moses, Muhammad, and Abraham from the Qur’an.

In the Qur’an, the word of miracle is not mentioned. In the Qur’an the words of “Ayat (evidence/sign)” take place.

Al-Mu’min; 78:

78And surely, We sent many messengers before you. We told you about some of them and not some of them. None of those messengers might have brought an evidence/a sign without the consent/knowledge of Allah. And when the will of Allah arrives, it will be fulfilled with the Truth. The superstitious will lose and suffer upon this.

Ar-Ra‘d; 38:

38Surely, We have sent many prophets before you. And We gave them wives and descendants [sons and daughters] as well. It is not possible for a prophet to bring an evidence/a sign without the consent/knowledge of Allah. For each respite there is a decree.

Our Rabb expressed every entity and event that is the evidence/ sign of His own existence and oneness as Ayat.

Ayat revealed to Muhammad (evidence/ sign)

In the pre-Islamic societies- narration of the mythological events was widespread. In mythology, many demigod humans are depicted. When Messenger came, the society wanted and expected from him to exhibit skills, just like in mythology, to have a golden house, to ascend into the sky, to fetch a corpus tome from the Heavens, to bring together an angel in the form they believed, not to eat, not to drink, to make orchards and gardens where the rivers spring, to bring the sky down on themselves. But they were notified by Allah that as the proof of Muhammad’s duty as a messenger is only the Wahy, the Qur’an, was sufficient. And at all times, as the proof of Muhammad’s duty as a messenger, only the Wahy, the Qur’an, was shown.

An-Najm; 1-4:

1I hereby adduce each revelation of the Ayat that were revealed group by group that 2your Companion has neither strayed nor transgressed. 3He does not speak of His own desires. 4What He says to you; those groups of Ayat that were revealed, are nothing but the revelations revealed to Him.

Ya Sin; 1-6:

1Ya/10, Sin/60. 2-6I hereby adduce the Qur’an, the Scripture that contains the laws sent by the One Who is the Omnipotent, the Most Supreme, the Most Honorable, the Invincible/the Most Victorious, the Most Merciful to warn those people whose ancestors were not warned and thus who are apathetic; and is forbidden from manipulation, that you are among those messengers, and surely you are on a righteous path.

Al-Ankabut ; 50, 51:

50And they said: “Why no evidence/signs from his Rabb [Lord, the Cherisher, the Nurturer, the Sustainer] have been sent down upon him?”. Say: “Evidence/signs are only with Allah. I am only a clear warner”.
51And is it not sufficient for them that We have revealed to you the Scripture that is recited to them? There surely are evidence/signs in this for a people who believe.

When our Rabb ordered, “Hasn’t what was sent down been sufficient?” the truth that Allah has not provided His prophets with anything but the Wahy is also explained.

In fact, when Moses confronted the Pharaoh, the Pharaoh asked a proof from Moses and Allah made Moses to exhibit his accumulation as a proof:

Al-A’raf; 103-108:

103Then after all those Messengers/those people, We sent Moses with our evidence/signs to the Pharaoh and his chiefs but they treated Our evidence/signs unjustly. Look! What was the end of those mischief-makers!
104,105And Moses said: “O the Pharaoh! Truly I am a messenger sent by Rabb [the Lord, the Cherisher, the Nurturer, the Sustainer] of all worlds [Al-Alemin]. I am liable to say nothing but the truth about Allah. Truly, I have come to you with a crystal clear evidence from your Rabb [the Lord, the Cherisher, the Nurturer, the Sustainer]. So let the Children of Israel leave along with me”.
106the Pharaoh said: “If you have come with evidence, then bring it forth if you are one of those who tell the truth”.
107,108Then Moses threw his knowledge forth and it obviously became “a devourer” . And he pulled out his strength and put it open; then his strength was excellent and perfect for the audience.

Ash-Shu’ara; 31- 33:

31the Pharaoh said: “Well, bring it forward now, if you are one of those righteous”.
32Then Moses bring his knowledge forward; and suddenly the knowledge of Moses has become a “devourer”.
33He pulled his power out; and that power seemed perfect to the audience.

In many of the Ayat of the Qur’an, it is expressed that the Wahy is “unique to Him” and Wahy have been/can be made by no one but Him.

Allah elects a messenger

Ruh’s ilkas (revelation) is a work that is unique to Allah and Allah reveals the ruh to whomever servant of Him He wishes.

Al-Mu’min; 15:

15He is the One Who raises the ranks, the Owner of the Greatest Throne/Position: By His command/will He reveals His Ayat whomever He wishes to warn about the Day of Meeting.

Al-Isra; 85:

85And they ask you about what was revealed to you. Say: “Wahy [Revelation] is an affair of my Rabb [the Lord, the Cherisher, the Nurturer, the Sustainer]. And you are granted nothing but a little piece of knowledge”.

Ash-Shura; 52, 53:

52,53Thus We have revealed to you the Soul/the Qur’an by Our command/affair. You knew not what a Scripture was and what faith was. But We made it into a light/soul with which We guide whomever of Our servants. Without a doubt, you guide to the straight and righteous path; guide those who are in the Heavens and on the Earth to the path of Allah to which they belong. So open your eyes! All matters will return to Allah.

Ad-Dukhan; 2- 7:

2-7By the clear/explanatory Scripture, as an affair from Us, We surely sent it down during a night in which every matter/event distinguished, all the blessings were given in abundance and earnings were high, full of laws, rules and principles that were set forth to prevent injustice and chaos. Thus We warned. Surely, We sent messengers out of the mercy of your Rabb [the Lord, the Cherisher, the Nurturer, the Sustainer], Rabb [the Lord, the Cherisher, the Nurturer, the Sustainer] of the Heavens, the Earth and all that is in between – If you are true believers-. Surely, He is the Best Hearing, the Best Seeing.

According to these Ayat, Wahy, just like the first creation, is a thing that is unique to Allah. The fact that Wahy is the biggest evidence-sign comes from this fact. Trying to understand the question of “how” behind the Wahy, evidence- sign, through the theories in the universe is nothing but beating the air. It is necessary to evaluate every event that Allah did not say, “This is something unique from me,” through scientific principles.

It is necessary to stop and think at this point.

Despite these facts, as a result of the falsification of the past scriptures and misunderstanding of the Qur’an, people attributed extraordinary qualities to the prophets. So much so that, the miracles (!) attributed to the other prophets were multiplied by thousands an adapted to last Prophet Mohammed. This way, the last prophet became the deity of the deities.

It is seen that the prophets are matched. Like the football fanatics: “The biggest team is my team and the biggest prophet is my prophet!”
They adapted thousands of miracles (!) to our prophet. All of them are exaggerations. They wrote volumes of books and they exhibited the products of their imaginations just like novels.

Despite the fact that the Scripture revealed to the Messenger is sufficient (as an evidence-sign) is specified, such fabrications were unfortunately conducted. Although the Qur’an is the BIGGEST of the evidences and signs, those incomplete witted persons, who are unable to comprehend this, fabricated miracles (!), and even, as exaggeration, ascribed DIVINE ATTRIBUTIONS to the Messenger, so they transgressed.

The Qur’an is already an evidence and sign thanks to the knowledge it provides in terms of LITERARY ARTS, THE SUBJECTS IT CONTAINS, AND PHYSICS, CHEMISTRY, BIOLOGY, and ASTRONOMY THAT WE ARE NEWLY ABLE TO UNDERSTAND. Hence, it challenges the humanity as ‘YOU CANNOT BRING THE LIKE OF IT, A SURAH OF IT, AND AN AYAH OF IT EVEN IF YOU TRY TO BRING.’ You can see these challenges in Surah Baqara/23, Al-Isra 88, Yunus 54, Hud 13, Ad-Tur 33, 34.

This challenge has been ongoing for fifteen centuries and will continue until the day of Qiyamat. The Qur’an is the BIGGEST of the Ayat (evidences and signs) in their form that has impressed since its advent and will be impressing trillions of people in the future.

MIRACLES (!)OF JESUS

As it is known, with regard to Prophet Jesus, Muslims acknowledge miracles such as his speaking when he was on the cradle,  the fact that he resurrected the dead, made the innate blind seeing just like the sound people, he healed skin disease which was a skin disease, he informed about the things eaten or kept to be eaten by his people, he was born without a father, he knew Allah’s holy scriptures of  the Torah, the Bible, and the Qur’an, he made a thing like bird from mud and gave a life to it and made it fly through his breath, he notified about the auspicious person, our Prophet Mohammed, who will come after him; and the Christians accept miracles like his conversion of water into wine, his stopping of a storm, his healing of the ill persons and blind ones as well as paralyzed  and leprous people, his  exorcism, his prophesy, his changing of his  appearance, his increase of the food and drink, his provision of fertility to the commodities.

We are leaving the analysis of the expressions specified in the scriptures of the Christians (Matthew 8:23-27,  John 2:1-11, Matthew 8:14-15,   John 9:1-41, Luke 5:17- 46, Mark 10:46-52, Luke 17:11-19, Mark 4:39.) to the Christians and analyzing the Ayat in the Qur’an regarding

Prophet Jesus’ miracles:

Ali-Imran; 45-51:

45,46And when the harbinger Ayat said: “O Mary! Allah gives you the good tidings with a word from Him. His name will be Jesus the Messiah, son of Mary. He will be noble in the world and Akhirat [Afterlife]. And he will be among those who have been brought close, the righteous. He will talk to people as an adult of higher position. 48And Allah will teach him the Scripture, the laws, rules and principles that are set forth to prevent injustice, mischief and chaos and the Bible with the Torah.
49-51And He will make him a messenger to Israelites to say, ‘The truth is I have brought/come upon you with evidence/a sign from your Rabb [Lord, the Cherisher, the Nurturer, the Sustainer]; surely, I design for you a clay; mud; ceramic object; thurible (censer) that resembles a bird. Then I blow into it; for an aerosol so, by the will of Allah, all that which causes illness will fly away like birds. I can heal the blind and the leper, resurrect the social dead by the will of Allah. I inform you about your food that you will eat and store in your houses; save to eat later. –If you believe, there is surely evidence/a sign in this for you.- I confirm the contents of Torah only which is contained in the Bible as well. I will make lawful a part of that which has been forbidden. I have brought to you evidence/a sign from your Rabb [Lord, the Cherisher, the Nurturer, the Sustainer]. Now surrender under the guardianship of Allah and follow me. Surely, Allah is my Rabb [Lord, the Cherisher, the Nurturer, the Sustainer] and your Rabb [Lord, the Cherisher, the Nurturer, the Sustainer]. Therefore, worship Him! This is the righteous path’”.

Al-Ma’idah; 110:

110When Allah said: “O Jesus, son of Mary! Remember My blessing upon you and your mother! When I strengthened you with the Wahy [Revelation] of Allah. You were talking to the people as a man at a higher rank and an adult man. When I taught you the Scripture, the laws, rules and principles that were stipulated to prevent injustice, mischief and chaos, the Torah and the Bible.
When you made an object [thurible] from mud; clay [ceramic] that looked like a bird by My will/knowledge. Then you blew into it; forming aerosol, and they [pests that spread; transmit disease] became birds by My will/knowledge. You healed those who were born blind and the leper by My will/knowledge. And, again by My will/knowledge, you exhumed/resurrected social dead. And when you came to Israelites with manifest evidence and those who disbelieve the Divinity of Allah and the fact that He is Rabb [the Lord, the Cherisher, the Nurturer, the Sustainer] among them said: “This is blatant sorcery”, I protected you from them.

The source of the miracles attributed to Prophet Jesus is these Ayat. In fact, in these Ayat, the subject matter is the training of a messenger by our Rabb. When this issue is narrated, content of the messages communicated once to Messenger Zachariah and Mary is explained as well.
The angels mentioned here, as in the Ayat of 42 and 43, are those revelations, and what the angels said are the messages in those revelations. Here, the narration is conducted by means of the art of intak (give voice; put into words). In fact, these messages were revealed to Zachariah and transferred from Zachariah to Mary. In Ahzab, Ayat 30- 34, we will see that the women of the Prophet are addressed through the Messenger.

In the forty sixth Ayah, information about Jesus of “He will talk to people as an adult of higher position” is provided. In order to make this point more understandable, we are providing an analysis we conducted on the Surah Mary here:

…….
In our work entitled “Tabyin,” we showed a hundred times  that the Mushaf arrangement committee did not make a chronologic arrangement when they arranged the Mushaf, they failed to pay attention to the Sections and to arrange the clauses in some paragraphs and the components of a clause within an entire Ayah according to the required grammar rules. We considered this issue to have stemmed from the fact that once the arrangement committee was not experts of grammar and that they preferred the way of first protecting the whole and then making the corrections.
However, the fact that this committee and its  head responsible assignees remained insensitive to such negativities; that, thus, many events and massacres took place; that, however, the analysis of the arrangement was prevented for many reasons; invoked the idea in us that the reason for this was not negligence or oversight but betrayal.
In the work of us in question, we saw that locations of some Ayat were changed in the Qur’an, in the passages regarding Prophet Jesus (the Surat of Mary, Zuhruf, An-Nisa) that the Ayat whose locations were changed did not correspond to their present location in technical and semantic grounds. We shared these in our book by disclosing them with a sentence with everyone
We have come to the opinion that the Ayat in the Qur’an passages were carried to the passage relating to Jesus and their place was changed in order to transfer the qualifications regarding the Qur’an to Prophet Jesus and wrong belief formations were deliberately provided. With this betrayal in mind, we took it as a requirement of our belief to pore over the fact that whether there is a problem in the qira’at like the one in the arrangement or not and we re-handled the passage regarding Jesus in the Surah Mary and scrutinized it. And, we reached very important findings we have previously neglected there. We are interpreting these Ayat within the framework of the new findings and sharing them with you.

Interpretation of the 29th Ayat according to the Mushaf’s qira’ati in our hands is as follows as we have written and specified earlier:

Upon this, she [Mary] pointed at him [child]. They said, “How can we talk to a person who is a little child in the cradle?”

According to this interpretation Mary fasted complying with the recommendation of the messenger and did not answer to her people despite their saddening accusations. In addition to her silence, she pointed at her baby as if she was saying “He shall answer,” which infuriated everyone and she became subject to the words of her people: “How can we talk to a person who is a little child in the cradle?”
According to these expressions, Jesus spoke in the cradle. This meaning was supported with the meanings of the current qira’ati of the Ayat of the Surat Ali-Imran/46, Al-Ma’idah/110 and Jesus was given the miracle of having spoken in the cradle. And Jesus said (!), according to the current arrangement of the Ayat, when he was in the cradle, “Surely, I am the servant of Allah. He has given me the Scripture and made me a Prophet. He has rendered me blessed wherever I am. He has burdened me with the liability to fulfill Salat and Zaqat/tax as long as I live. And He has made me kind to my mother. And He has not made me a tyrant, an unhappy one. And peace be upon me, on the day I was born, on the day I will die, and on the day I will be resurrected. And surely, Allah is my Rabb, and He is your Rabb as well. Then, serve Him, it is the righteous path.”

However, as we have clearly stated, the arrangement of this paragraph was not conducted accurately and Ayah 36, some of the words of Jesus, (“And surely, Allah is my Rabb, and He is your Rabb as well. Then, serve Him, it is the righteous

According to the classical accounts, the exact meaning of asa is “accumulation; something held tight”. In this form it defines “the Qur’an” exactly. It is uses as the specific name for “the specter” not only because “the hand and the fingers are gathered on it” but it “accumulates (embodies) in itself many benefits such as being a support to lean upon, a tool to shake leaves, a weapon, a shovel, etc”.
When this word is attributed to Moses, it means “knowledge of Moses; something that Moses held tightly/firmly”, which – as can be understood from the respective Ayah – represents the “revelations sent to Moses and his empirical know-how”. The scepter of Moses is defined very explicitly. When the Surat Al-Baraqa/63, 93; Al-A’raf/145, 171; Maryam/12 are examined, it can be found that “the object that is held tightly” is “the Scripture/the Divine Wahy”. Furthermore, as can be seen in the division 181, our Rabb [Lord, the Cherisher, the Nurturer, the Sustainer] stated in the Surah Yunus: “And when those scholars who spoke eloquently arrived, Moses said: “Throw what you have!”. And when they threw, Moses said: “What you have brought is nothing but a smoke and mirrors, an illusion. Surely, Allah will reveal that it is nothing but an illusion. Surely, Allah does not fix what mischief-makers have done wrong. And Allah manifests the truth with His own word even if it the sinners dislike” thus implying that the sorcerers were defeated not by the scepter but by the “words of Allah”.
Asa appears 6 times in the Qur’an. Asa in the Surah Ta-Ha/18 is “the shepherd’s staff”, i.e. a common “scepter”. Our Rabb [Lord, the Cherisher, the Nurturer, the Sustainer] gave this scepter to Moses during the revelation of the first Wahy. Others, on the other hand, stand for the “empirical know-how of Moses and also the knowledge he learned from the revelations”. The asa that Moses used against Pharaoh, to cross the sea and to chastise the stonyhearted Israelites is actually the “knowledge of Moses” [What was revealed to him and what he had learned and experienced to that time].

Sub’an is derived from the word seab, meaning of which is “flux of water and blood”. Meandering course of the gullies in the valley, curly hair of the beloved one are defined by the poet by using this word. Plural of this word is Sub’an. in its singular form, Sub’an means “a long and strong, rat-hunting snake”.
That means, the literal meaning of sub’an is “a flood that wipes all that is before it”. The reason for the use of this word to name a snake that hunts rats is that snakes do look like meandering rivers by its long and curly form and they devour any rat they come upon. The reason to make an analogy for the knowledge of Moses is that the divine wahy [revelation] will eventually devour and eliminate all plans and plots of the men/the superstition.

Yad-i Baiza: Yad is generally translated as “a hand” but it metaphorically means “power, wealth, authority, reign, blessing, bow, all works performed by hand”.
The power mentioned here is defined as “the power in his pocket/bosom” in other Ayat and in the Official Mushaf: AnNaml/12, Al-Qasas/32; and this power is Aaron.
Baiza is a derivative of the same root, from which the Turkish word “beyaz” [white] is derived. Following information on this word can be found in widely available vocabulary books: “The original meaning of this word is an egg. Bayaz means “white as an egg”. The bayzae form of this word expresses “excessive whiteness, brightness”. The sun, a woman with a smooth, white complexion, the bare soil with no plants on it, 14th and 15th nights of the Lunar Months are all named baiza. The phrase Yad-i Baiza represents “anything that is proven; an evidence”. According to these explanations, this word can be used as an adjective that means “snow white” which, in turn, is the expression of perfection and flawlessness.
The white [flawless] look of the “power” as mentioned in the Ayat stems from the excellent talent of Aaron in expression and rhetoric. As it is understood from the Ayat, Moses was not good at expressing himself due to his lack of knowledge in Hebrew or an anomaly on his tongue. This defect of Moses was compensated by appointing his brother, Aaron, as his vizier, secretary, spokesman. This matter is related explicitly in the respective passage of the Surah Ta-Ha.

See Footnote No.1

See Footnote No.2

See Footnote No.3

The expression the one who is mighty in strength, exalted in intelligence and dominates the Throne in the Heavens is addressed to “Allah”. However, when interpreting these words only metaphorical meaning of them should be considered and it must be known that the expression does not qualify Allah but merely the reflection of His manifestation and potency. Then, it is in the Qur’an that Allah manifested Himself as “a smokeless fire at the mountain, on the tree”.
The original meaning of wahy, as mentioned in the Ayah, is “to inform secretly”. In time, this meaning evolved to mean “to speak secretly, to indicate, to command, to inspire, to imply, to whisper, to write a letter, to send a messenger”.
The literary meaning of wahy is “Direct revelation of Allah’s instructions and judgments to His prophets by Himself rapidly and secretly without a mediator or any instrument whatsoever”. Wahy is synonym of ilqa.
We do not and will not know how revelations happen. Then, as with the creation out of nothing, Allah qualifies this process as “one of His acts; a process that no one cannot and will not be able to fulfill”.

path,”) were arranged as the Ayah 34 and the paragraph was deregulated and rendered meaningless. We have previously determined this and made the following correction.

Ayat 30–33 and 36:

34He is Jesus [Isa], son of Mary, about whom they have been disputing according to the Truth, and who says: “30Surely, I am the servant of Allah. He has given me the Scripture and made me a Prophet. 31He has rendered me blessed wherever I am. He has burdened me with the liability to fulfill Salat [Support others financially and spiritually; strive to enlighten the community] and Zaqat/tax as long as I live. 32And He has made me kind to my mother. And He has not made me a tyrant, an unhappy one. 33And peace be upon me, on the day I was born, on the day I will die, and on the day I will be resurrected. 36And surely, Allah is my Rabb [Lord, the Cherisher, the Nurturer, the Sustainer], and He is your Rabb [Lord, the Cherisher, the Nurturer, the Sustainer] as well. Then, serve Him, it is the righteous path”.

 

Our analysis was on the word of “ المَهدel MEHDI” we previously translated with its meaning of “cradle” that took place in this passage and in the other Ayat regarding Jesus. This word, as it is known, just like all other words, are written in the first Mushaf copies as without hareke (vowel point). It is possible to read this word as “ المَهدel MEHDI,” “ المُهدel MUHDI” and “ المِهدel MIHDI.”

If this word is read as” المَهدel Mehdi,” it means “cradle;” and if it is read as“ المُهد el Muhdi,” it means “High Rank.” (Lisan al-Arab, Tacu’l Arus)  “ م ه دmhd” mad)

In the official Mushaf in our hands, the first place where this word was mentioned in relation to Jesus is Ali Imran; Ayat of 38, 39. In the copy of Isam in the first Mushaf, the 385th  leaf where these Ayat take place is lost. This page was written by Davud b. Ali Keylaniy in Mecca in the year of 1437/841 and placed into the Mushaf.(Mushaf al-Sharif; ISAM Publications). Those who wrote the lost page with hareke (vowel point) did not mark with a hareke (vowel point) the word of “ المهدel mhd” in the Ayat. That is to say,, they rendered the word readable as “المَهدel mehdi, “ المُهد el muhdi and  المِهدel mihdi.” 

If we read the word of el mehdi in Mary/29 as “ المُهد el Muhdi,” the meaning of the Ayah becomes automatically “Upon this, she [Mary] pointed at him [child]. They said, “HOW CAN WE, THE PEOPLE IN HIGH RANK, TALK TO A LITTLE CHILD?”

Moreover, considering the truth that the word in the original of this Ayat, read as “ نكلّمNUKELLIMU,” is the hareke (vowel point) of the first copies and the letters that constitute this word can be read as يكلّمYUKELLIMU” as well, and giving a meaning to the Ayah accordingly, we will see that the Ayah will mean, “Upon this, she [Mary] pointed at him [child]. They said, ‘HOW CAN THE PEOPLE IN HIGH RANK TALK TO A LITTLE CHILD?’

Having explained the qira’at (readings) and their meanings in the Ayat this way, we are returning to the issue of arrangement of the Ayat in the passage.

The 30th Ayah of the Mushaf we presently have starts with the word “ قالQale (he said:).” This ayah was arranged in the continued 29th Ayah and the meaning of “Jesus, the child in the cradle, said: 30Surely, I am the servant of Allah. He has given me the Scripture and made me a Prophet. …….” was created. If these words were a demonstration to those people who assert that a child in cradle cannot speak, the clause  would technically  start with “fâ-i takibiyye” and the expression would become “ فقالfe Qale…..” Hence, in the 29th Ayah before this, Mary’s defense against the accusation to her came in the form of “ فأشارت اليهfe  eşaret ileyhi (Upon this, she [Mary] pointed at him [child]” with “fa-i takıbiyye.”
In sum, the 30th Ayah is not technically suitable for its location. The thirtieth Ayah is the continuation of the 34th Ayah in terms of technique and meaning. In the form of a clause, it is the adjective of the expression of “Jesus, the son of Mary” given in Ayah 24 along with the Ayat 31, 32, 33 and 36. With the acknowledgement of this fact, the meaning of the paragraph will be as follows:

 Mary/31-34:

34He is Jesus [Isa], son of Mary, about whom they have been disputing according to the Truth, and who says: “30Surely, I am the servant of Allah. He has given me the Scripture and made me a Prophet. 31He has rendered me blessed wherever I am. He has burdened me with the liability to fulfill Salat [Support others financially and spiritually; strive to enlighten the community] and Zaqat/tax as long as I live. 32And He has made me kind to my mother. And He has not made me a tyrant, an unhappy one. 33And peace be upon me, on the day I was born, on the day I will die, and on the day I will be resurrected. 36And surely, Allah is my Rabb [Lord, the Cherisher, the Nurturer, the Sustainer], and He is your Rabb [Lord, the Cherisher, the Nurturer, the Sustainer] as well. Then, serve Him, it is the righteous path”

In this paragraph, Jesus’ duty of a prophet and his life were summarized. In his statement, there is no concession other than the Sunnetullah (Law of Allah) in question. The summary regarding Jesus’ mission is also given in the following Ayat:

 

Al-Ma’idah; 72, 73:  

72Surely, those who say: “Allah is the Messiah, son of Mary” have certainly become infidels; a people who consciously deny the Divinity of Allah and the fact that He is Rabb [the Lord, the Cherisher, the Nurturer, the Sustainer]. But the Messiah said: “O Israelites! Worship Allah, my Rabb [the Lord, the Cherisher, the Nurturer, the Sustainer] and your Rabb [the Lord, the Cherisher, the Nurturer, the Sustainer]. Surely whoever associates others with Allah, Allah will surely make Jannah [Heaven/Paradise] haram [forbidden] to him and his settlement will be the Fire. And there will be no helpers for those who do wrong; act against their own good by blaspheming”.
73Surely, those who say: “Allah is the third of the three” have become have certainly become infidels; a people who consciously deny the Divinity of Allah and the fact that He is Rabb [the Lord, the Cherisher, the Nurturer, the Sustainer]. But there is no god but the One God. Should they not desist what they say, a painful punishment will surely touch the infidels; those who consciously deny the Divinity of Allah and the fact that He is Rabb [the Lord, the Cherisher, the Nurturer, the Sustainer].

 

Az-Zukhruf; 63, 64:  

63,64And when Jesus came with manifest evidence, he said: “I have brought you the laws, rules and principles that are made to preclude injustice and chaos among you and I also am here to explain some of those matters upon which you conflict. Then, surrender yourselves under the guardianship of Allah and obey me. Surely, Allah is my Rabb [the Lord, the Cherisher, the Nurturer, the Sustainer] and your Rabb [the Lord, the Cherisher, the Nurturer, the Sustainer] as well. So worship Him. This is a righteous path”.

 

According to the text in this paragraph, the “Muhd” (at high rank),” is not Jesus but the notable temple attendants of that day.
As it is known, the  expression of “ المهدel MHD,” which is the basic factor of our subject matter, is mentioned in Ali-Imran/46 and Al-Ma’idah/110, the Surah regarding Prophet Jesus. When we read the word as “ المُهدel Muhd” and give it a meaning this way, the meaning of the Ayat will be as follows.

Ali-Imran; 46-48:

45,46And when the harbinger Ayat said: “O Mary! Allah gives you the good tidings with a word from Him. His name will be Jesus the Messiah, son of Mary. He will be noble in the world and Akhirat [Afterlife]. And he will be among those who have been brought close, the righteous. He will talk to people as an adult of higher position. 48And Allah will teach him the Scripture, the laws, rules and principles that are set forth to prevent injustice, mischief and chaos and the Bible with the Torah.

 

Al-Ma’idah; 110:

110When Allah said: “O Jesus, son of Mary! Remember My blessing upon you and your mother! When I strengthened you with the Wahy [Revelation] of Allah. You were talking to the people as a man at a higher rank and an adult man. When I taught you the Scripture, the laws, rules and principles that were stipulated to prevent injustice, mischief and chaos, the Torah and the Bible.
When you made an object [thurible] from mud; clay [ceramic] that looked like a bird by My will/knowledge. Then you blew into it; forming aerosol, and they [pests that spread; transmit disease] became birds by My will/knowledge. You healed those who were born blind and the leper by My will/knowledge. And, again by My will/knowledge, you exhumed/resurrected social dead. And when you came to Israelites with manifest evidence and those who disbelieve the Divinity of Allah and the fact that He is Rabb [the Lord, the Cherisher, the Nurturer, the Sustainer] among them said: “This is blatant sorcery”, I protected you from them.
In these Ayat, contrary to Mary/29, the one who is in the high rank is Jesus. Our Rabb granted him high ranks. We see this in Surah An-Nisa (158th  Ayah) “They did not certainly kill him. On the contrary,  Allah raised him to Himself (He increased his rank).” It was stated that such high ranks were granted to Prophet Idris as well.

Mary; 56, 57:

56And relate to Idris [Enoch] in the Scripture. Surely, he was a righteous person, a Prophet. 57And We raised him to a divine place.

According to what is understood from these remarks, the locations of the Ayat of the passages regarding Jesus in the Mushaf and their qira’at were deliberately changed in order to provide Jesus with a special status. By doing this, Jesus was made speak in the cradle, flown into the Heavens beside Allah, people were convinced that he will return from there, his return was considered to be the sign of doomsday, and the belief that everyone will believe him before death was expanded.

As far as it is known, the Jews and the Christians do not accept that Prophet Jesus spoke in the cradle and assert the following views:
“If this event has truly taken place, it would expand along people in the form of rumor as a very interesting and impressive event and it would never be forgotten. Yet, such event has never been heard and such belief never formed in even the most fanatics of the Christians. In addition, it is a historical reality that the Jews were the enemies of Jesus at that time. Hence, when Jesus proclaimed himself as a messenger, they tried to kill him. If Jesus had spoken in the cradle and proclaimed himself as a prophet, the Jews would annihilate him even at that time.”

We rejected this view previously asserting the logic that “Even though such thoughts of those who do not believe the miracle of Jesus’ talk in the cradle seem to be reasonable at first sight, it is not sufficient to explain why the bigot Jews of those days did not stone to death Mary they accused with adultery. In our opinion, only such miracle might have saved Mary from the Israelites’ attempt of stoning to death.” As seen in our researches, we ourselves proved that such event did not take place.
…..

Jesus’ resurrection of the dead

In this paragraph, the fact that Jesus would say to the Israelites “I will resurrect the dead by the consent of Allah” was notified to Mary before Jesus was born. Here, Jesus’ resurrection of the dead was perceived in the actual sense and many sagas were propounded. We think it is unnecessary to include them herewith.

However, when we look at the Qur’an,  we see that in many Ayat (An-Naml/80, Fatir/22, Al-An’am/122) the expression of “dead” is used not as an actual dead but “living dead (spiritually dead).” The expression of “dead” in this Ayat is used, as seen, for the persons who were spiritually dead; deep in shirk and kufr (polytheism and swearing), lost their wit and conscience.

Meanwhile, we must remember that the Qur’an was sent to resurrect such dead persons and became the ruh:

Ash-Shura; 52:

52,53Thus We have revealed to you the Soul/the Qur’an by Our command/affair. You knew not what a Scripture was and what faith was. But We made it into a light/soul with which We guide whomever of Our servants. Without a doubt, you guide to the straight and righteous path; guide those who are in the Heavens and on the Earth to the path of Allah to which they belong. So open your eyes! All matters will return to Allah.

After this information,  we must now pay attention to this Ayah and the underlined expression:

Al-Anfal; 24:

24O you who have believed! When the Messenger invites you to that which will gives you life, respond to Allah and His Messenger. And be aware that Allah intervenes between man and his heart. And you shall absolutely be gathered before Him.

 

This means that the Wahy brought by Prophet Jesus to the society are the source of the spiritual life as well and provided the resurrection of people who were spiritually dead.

Creation of a bird

In order to understand what this evidence-sign is,  it is necessary to know the meaning of the verb of “halk” well.

The verb “ الخلقHalk”

Following information is given with regard to this word:

Actual meaning of the verb “ خلقHalk” is “appreciation, adjustment, measurement, and formation. In the Arabic language, it is “doing without an example, without an imitation. Abu-Bakr ibn el Enbari says: ‘The word of “Halk” is used in the Arabic language in two angles as “construct” and “appreciate.”’ ((Lisan al-Arab, c.3 , s. 195, 196. “hlq” art.)
We see that in the Qur’an, the verb of “halk” is used in many Ayat (for example; Baqara/21, 29, Al-Fajr/8, Al-Mu’minun/14,  Ash-Shu’ara/137, Al-Mu’minun/17, Sad/7) as appreciation, formation, adjustment, shaping, and fabrication.

The expressions in these two Ayat will suffice to admit the verb of “ خلَقhalk” is used as appreciation.

Al-Ma’idah; 110:

110When Allah said: “O Jesus, son of Mary! Remember My blessing upon you and your mother! When I strengthened you with the Wahy [Revelation] of Allah. You were talking to the people as a man at a higher rank and an adult man. When I taught you the Scripture, the laws, rules and principles that were stipulated to prevent injustice, mischief and chaos, the Torah and the Bible.
When you made an object [thurible] from mud; clay [ceramic] that looked like a bird by My will/knowledge. Then you blew into it; forming aerosol, and they [pests that spread; transmit disease] became birds by My will/knowledge. You healed those who were born blind and the leper by My will/knowledge. And, again by My will/knowledge, you exhumed/resurrected social dead. And when you came to Israelites with manifest evidence and those who disbelieve the Divinity of Allah and the fact that He is Rabb [the Lord, the Cherisher, the Nurturer, the Sustainer] among them said: “This is blatant sorcery”, I protected you from them.

Al-Fajr; 6- 13:

6-13Have you not seen how your Rabb [the Lord, the Cherisher, the Nurturer, the Sustainer] dealt with the people of Ad, the people of Iram who own the pillars – like of which were not created on the realm -, the people of Thamud who cut out the rocks in the valleys, the the Pharaoh, the Owner of the stakes; who had excellent armies/torture as never seen before44? They transgressed beyond bounds in those lands. Therefore they spread the corruption there. Then your Rabb [the Lord, the Cherisher, the Nurturer, the Sustainer] unleashed the whip of wrath upon them.

Jesus’ utterance “By the consent of Allah” is for eliminating the mistake by those people who believe that he is a deity for believing that he is a deity.

When the verses are translated through faithfulness on the text, it will be seen that sending of Jesus to Israelites and reasons for this sending are being explained. The issues that Moses and Aaron were sent to teach the revelation and amalgamation to Israelites but also save them from slavery in Egypt. In this passage, it is summarized that, upon declaration of the revelation by Jesus, he was assigned to such tasks as performing preventive medicine, optics, dermatology, teaching consumption of healthy food, preparation of canned food, pickles, molasses, brine, stocking of wheat, barley, legumes and protection of these from humidity and insects for saving Israelites from the epidemics surrounded them, are being stated in summary.

In the Ayah, which we translated as “surely, I will design for you a clay; mud; ceramic item; ‘a thurible (a censer)’ that resembles a bird, object of the verb “design” was not mentioned in the original Ayah and left open for the interpretation of the readers. While no “bird figure” or “bird model” is mentioned within the Ayah, the phrase is so constructed to imply the meaning, “I will design something that resembles a bird figure or something like a bird model.” What mentioned here is that Jesus makes a clay thurible in the form of bird and blows the spices that he puts inside it thus repelling mosquitoes, flies, and other insects that may cause eye diseases, etc. It is obvious that most of the thuribles made today are in the form of a bird.
Also, subject of the verb “fayaqunu (it happens)” is not mentioned in the ayah and left open for the interpretation of the readers.

These facts that are deducted from the literal meaning of the Ayat are supported by the Qumran (Dead Sea) Scrolls of Essenes, which have been deciphered recently. (Section of the SCROLLS OF QUMRAN can be examined)

In the expression in the Ayat, “I will make lawful a part of that which has been forbidden,” he states that he will eliminate the things that the Jews made haram (illegal) by themselves and bring what is righteous.  We can handle this issue from two angles:
- If one takes heed, it will be seen that he did not say here “I will make lawful a part of that which has been forbidden in the Torah.” In the expression “in the Torah” is not available. This means that the things made haram by the Israelites are the things made haram by the notable people among them. Here, removal of a judgment from the Torah etc. is not in question.
- It is a reality that there are prohibitions that are not normally haram but enforced for punishing the Israelites. With Prophet Jesus, such prohibitions are abolished.

An-Nisa; 160, 161:

160,161Then for the unjust behavior of those who had been converted to Judaism, their efforts to forbid people from the path of Allah, their usury [obtaining revenues without effort, service and risk] although it was forbidden to them and their unjustly consumption of the people’s wealth, We made haram [forbidden] that which had been made halal [permissible] to them. and We have prepared for the Jewish infidels; those who consciously deny the Divinity of Allah and the fact that He is Rabb [Lord, the Cherisher, the Nurturer, the Sustainer] a painful punishment.

This issue is available in the sources that narrate the life of Prophet Jesus  as well. Jesus approved those subjects in the Torah that are included in the Bible and deleted the rest considering them as dust and dirt.

Matthew/ 5; 17:

17 Let there be no thought that I have come to put an end to the law or the prophets. I have not come for destruction, but to make complete.

 Matthew/ 23; 1-7:

:1 Then Jesus said to the people and to his disciples:
23:2 The scribes and the Pharisees have the authority of Moses;
23:3 All things, then, which they give you orders to do, these do and keep: but do not take their works as your example, for they say and do not.
23:4 They make hard laws and put great weights on men’s backs; but they themselves will not put a finger to them.
23:5 But all their works they do so as to be seen by men: for they make wide their phylacteries, and the edges of their robes,
23:6 And the things desired by them are the first places at feasts, and the chief seats in the Synagogues,
23:7 And words of respect in the market-places, and to be named by men, Teacher.

Our Rabb has, through the Messenger, abolished what the Jews prohibited for themselves and the punishments enforced for them.

Al-A’raf; 156, 157:

156,157Allah said: “I have My punishment; I will touch with it those whom I please, and I have My Mercy; that surrounds everything. I will grant My mercy to those who surrender themselves under guardianship of Allah; those who give zaqat, tax and who believe Our Ayat; and those who follow the path of the Prophet from the Metropolis/Mecca, who orders them to do good deeds, forbids them from evil, allows them what is clean and good and prohibits them what is filthy and evil, eases their burden, unchains and unbinds them; whom they can find in the Torah and in the Bible. Therefore, those who believe him, show him a strong respect, help and support him and follow the light [Nur] sent down with him will surely be the salvaged”.

One of the issues that must be emphasized here is the issue of “Dining Table” mentioned in the Ayat of 112- 115. In the Ayat whether a dining table has been sent down or not is not explained. In the available falsified Bibles, there is no statement in relation to this subject. But the mechanism of rumor is not idle and produces things:  Dining table was sent down. There was a fish on the dining table without scales and bones. Beside it, salt, vegetables, vinegar, bread with butter, honey, cheese, olive, and pastrami were available.” “On the dining table, there were seven muffins and seven fishes,” “The dining table was a fish that yielded the taste of all the foods in the world.” The dining table was one of the blessings of the paradise.” “The dining table consisted of bread, rice, and vegetables.”  “The Apostles kept eating from this dining table. Later on, one of them committed theft and the dining table no longer descended.” etc. and many more groundless and baseless words were fabricated.
According to our opinion, no dining table was sent down because there is a punishment in the Ayat as follows: “Surely, I will descend. And whoever among you, disbelieves, I will punish him with a punishment that I have never imposed upon anyone in all worlds [Al-Alemin].”

Jesus’ bringing of the good tidings regarding the messenger who will come after him as well as his nativity through the revelation given to him without father (but with sperm and ovum even though he was fatherless) in this world are also Allah’s Ayah.
In this case, there is no miracle exhibited by Prophet Jesus other than the receipt of the revelations; descent of a scripture to him. These are already the miracles belonging to Allah.

Al-An’am;  109:

109And those who associate others with Allah; when evidence/a sign is sent upon them, they swear by Allah with their strongest oaths that they shall believe in Allah. Say: “Evidence/signs are only with Allah”. Do you not see that they shall not believe when evidence/signs come to them?

Al-Ankabut ; 50, 51:

50And they said: “Why no evidence/signs from his Rabb [Lord, the Cherisher, the Nurturer, the Sustainer] have been sent down upon him?”. Say: “Evidence/signs are only with Allah. I am only a clear warner”.
51And is it not sufficient for them that We have revealed to you the Scripture that is recited to them? There surely are evidence/signs in this for a people who believe.

Al-Isra; 59:

59And what prevented Us from sending evidence/signs is that those before you denied them. And We clearly and explicitly assigned Thamud the duty of establishing social relief institutions but they acted unjustly because of it. And We send those evident/signs only to scare.

MIRACLES (!) GIVEN TO MOSES

It is specified in the Qur’an that nine Ayat; evidence, sign; were revealed to Moses.

Al-Isra; 101:

101And surely, We gave Moses nine; many manifest Ayat [evidence/sign] – ask Israelites about it – . When Moses came to them and the Pharaoh said to him: “O Moses! I certainly know that you are possessed”.

An-Naml; 12:

8-12And when he came close to the fire, he was called: “Blessed is the one who is in and next to the fire and! And Allah, Rabb [the Lord, the Cherisher, the Nurturer, the Sustainer] of all worlds [Al-Alemin] is exonerated from all deficiencies!
“O Moses! Surely, I am Allah, the Most Exalted, the Most Powerful, the Most Honorable, the Invincible/the Subduer, the Best Law-Maker, the One Who Prevents Assimilation/Makes Solid!
“And bring forward your knowledge! – When he saw it caused to move like an invisible entity, he fled away. – O Moses, do not fear! Surely I; My Messengers do not fear in the presence of Me. But for those who act against their own good, who turn to good after having done evil, surely I am the Most Forgiving, the Most Merciful. –
“And engage the power within your chest, in nine Ayat [evidence/sign], you will come out perfect and flawless to the Pharaoh and his people. Surely they are a transgressing people”.

 

In the classical understanding, these “nine Ayat” are examined as nine miracles. They are listed as extraction of water from a boulder, staff’s conversion into a snake-dragon, the light disseminating from his hand, the great flood, the louse outbreak, frog and grasshopper invasion, transformation of water into blood, and split of the sea. However, it is seen that their penal exhibitions in the parables regarding Moses in order to warn the Israelites, like the great flood, the louse outbreak, frog and grasshopper invasion, transformation of water into blood are much more than nine. They are nothing but a bit of the punishment sent by our Rabb in order to warn people. They are related to Moses’ being a messenger.

Ar-Rum; 41:

41Chaos has emerged on the land and in the seas because of that which they have earned with their hands so it may make them taste some of which they have done; maybe they shall return.

Then the question of how to understand this “nine Ayat” expression comes to the surface.

The answer is as follows:

It is possible to understand number “nine” specified here as an allusion, while it is also possible that the renowned “ten commandments” principle in Moses’ sharia is given within nine Ayat (in the clause of Torah):

PROF DR. BAKI ADAM STATES ON PAGE 104 OF HIS BOOK ENTITLED “TORAH ACCORDING TO THE JEWISH SOURCES,” HIS DOCTORATE THESIS, PUBLISHED BY SEBA PUBLICATIONS IN 1997 AS FOLLOWS.

The expression “You will not have other deities but Me,” which is mentioned as two distinctive imperative sentences in the Jewish Torah, and the expression “you will not carve idols for yourself” are combined into a single imperative sentence in the Samaritan Torah. Thus, number of the imperative sentences, including the one that states, “do not envy your neighbor’s house,” is ten in the Jewish Torah and nine in the Samaritan Torah.

After the demonstration of prophethood given to the Messenger, we can now analyze the miracles (!) admitted to have been granted to Prophet Moses, through the Qur’an.

The miracle of Asa (Staff): (!)

In the passages regarding Moses in the Qur’an, a staff is mentioned. This word in the passages is acknowledged as a “walking stick” in Moses’ hand and his skills like the transformation of this staff into a snake or dragon, its swallowing of the staffs and threads of the magicians, its split of the sea, and its  brining water out of a boulder are narrated. Let us now analyze what this staff is.

ASA

In order to understand the parables regarding Moses in the Qur’an, it is necessary to go further than the prejudices of the Israelites and to find the true meanings of the words used by our Rabb in these parables. One of them is the word of “asa.” As, according to the descent of the Surat,  the word “asa” first takes place here, we would like to analyze it here.

Asa

The word “Asa” means in fact “içtima (gathering) and i’tilaf (accord).” The word Asa, as the hand and fingers gather on it, became the name of “Ud’ (Ud, the instrument). Esmai narrates some people of Basra as follows:
 “The reason for naming walking stick as “Asa” is that the hand and the fingers gather on it. This word is derived from the saying of the Arabs they utter when something good or evil gathered on them, “asavtu’l kavme, e’suhum (I brought the society together; bring them together).””
The expression of “leaving the Asa” means as a metaphor “the end of a journey, arrival of the traveler to his/her destination, erecting his/her post and planting his/her tent, and settlement there.” (Lisan; “asa” mad. Tac. “Asa” mad).

According to these remarks, the exact meaning of asa is “ACCUMULATION; something held tight.” In this form it defines “the Qur’an” exactly. When this word is attributed to Moses, it means “knowledge of Moses; something that Moses held tightly/firmly,” which – as can be understood from the verses– represents the “revelations sent to Moses and his empirical know-how.
The summary of what is revealed to Moses and his own accumulation is given in the beginning of Surah Ta Ha in the Ayat 11-16 as “…..  ” It is understood that Moses communicated these principles and discussed about them to be accepted.

The fact that it became the name of a walking stick is not only because of the assembly of the hand and the fingers on it “but of the assembly of many benefits like leaning on it, shaking off branches, and using as a weapon or pickax etc.”

The word “Asa”appears six times in the Qur’an

Now, let us analyze the word “asa” mentioned in the Qur’an.

Shepherd’s Asa

Asa in the Surah Ta-Ha/18 is “the shepherd’s staff,” i.e. a common “scepter.” Our Rabb gave this scepter to Moses during the first revelation.

Others stand for the “empirical know-how of Moses and also the knowledge he learned from the revelations.” The asa that Moses used against Pharaoh to cross the sea and to chastise the stonyhearted Israelites is actually the “knowledge of Moses,” what was revealed to him, and what he had learned and experienced to that time..
If the Ayat is read within the framework of these measures, we think they will be understood accurately.

Asa Transforming into a Snake

Ta Ha; 20-23:

20He then put it down immediately/settled for good and he saw! What was in his right hand has now become a Scripture that is revealed to him, a running and living entity; it is the source of the social life.
25Moses 20said: “O my Rabb [the Lord, the Cherisher, the Nurturer, the Sustainer]! 25Open my chest, 26facilitate my work 33so we may exonerate you from all deficiencies 34and remind you frequently. 27Untie my tongue 28so they can understand what I say to them. 29And that one from my Ahl [family; relatives]; 30my brother Aaron; 29make him my Wazir [minister], 31increase my strength with him. 32Make my partner in my duty. 35Surely, You hear and observe us”.
36Allah said: “O Moses! You are granted what you wish”.
21Allah said: “23For us to show you our greatest evidence/signs 21hold it, do not fear! We will return it in its previous form. 22Add it to your strength/wing as evidence/sign, you will exit perfectly and flawlessly without ugliness”.

In these Ayat, two Ayat sent down to Moses are mentioned. The first of these Ayat is the Ayah, the Wahy given to his right hand instead of a shepherd’s staff, the Torah. Second is his spare power that would add strength to  his strength when necessary: Aaron. We will see in the following Ayat that Moses’ ability to express was not sufficient and wanted his brother Aaron to be a helper for him in order to express himself and that this request was granted to Moses.
With regard to this issue of the asa and perfect power, details were given in the Surah Al-A’raf in the passages regarding Moses. We will herewith handle other words.

Hayye

The word “Hayyah” is one of the terms that have critical importance in the proper comprehension of the Moses passage. Therefore, we wish to provide details on this word.

Derived from the word Hayat, hayyah means “to live once.” Arabs use this word with many examples:

Snake is called hayyah due to its long lifespan.
Anyone who happens to have sharp sight is called “he sees better than hayyah.”
Anyone who is malevolent-insidious is called “he is crueler than hayyah”
Those who are beneficial and protective to his community are called “he is the hayyah of the earth/his region.
Those who live long, whether female or male, is called “she/he is such a hayyah.”
When an individual culminates in terms of intellect, mental capacity, and genius, he/she is called “she/he is the hayyah of the valley.”
Hayyah, in the context of simile, is used to describe the stars that lie between the twin quasar of the constellation Ursa Major and Alcaid [the dead/dormant star]. (Lisan, clause “hayyah;” Tac, clause “hayyah”)

Tahhiyah/salutation [May Allah give you a long life] is derived from the same root as well.

In short, meaning of this word is “life and vitality.” Basically, hayyah does not describe the snake itself, instead it describes the long life of the snake. Also mentioned here is the phrase hayyatun tes’a [tes’a that runs continuously]. The exact literal translation of this phrase would be “the one with seven lives” which means “evading the death many times.” While this word may be used for those who survived many illnesses, troubles and disasters, it is also used for cats and snakes.
To better comprehend hayyah, as mentioned in this Ayah, it must be considered that the object held by Moses in his right hand is described differently by Allah. In An-Naml/10 and Al-Qasas/31, the object held by Moses in his right hand is described as “it motivates, almost like an invisible entity.” That is, that which Moses holds in his right hand resembles an invisible entity that motivates things.” So, what is this invisible entity that motivates? It is the LIFE/SOUL of humans and beasts.
This expression represents the “SPIRITUAL” property of the revelation. Soul [ruh] is a name of the Qur’an while at the same time it is the name of that object [scripture] in Moses’ right hand. The Qur’an is a scripture giving life as well.

Al-Mu’min; 15:

15He is the One Who raises the ranks, the Owner of the Greatest Throne/Position: By His command/will He reveals His Ayat whomever He wishes to warn about the Day of Meeting.

Ash-Shura; 52-53:

52,53Thus We have revealed to you the Soul/the Qur’an by Our command/affair. You knew not what a Scripture was and what faith was. But We made it into a light/soul with which We guide whomever of Our servants. Without a doubt, you guide to the straight and righteous path; guide those who are in the Heavens and on the Earth to the path of Allah to which they belong. So open your eyes! All matters will return to Allah.

Al-Anfal; 24:

24O you who have believed! When the Messenger invites you to that which will gives you life, respond to Allah and His Messenger. And be aware that Allah intervenes between man and his heart. And you shall absolutely be gathered before Him.

In the case the word hayyah, as mentioned in the twentieth Ayah, is interpreted as “the snake,” the term “fear,” as mentioned in the 21st Ayah, will naturally be interpreted as “fear the snake.”

Yet, the fear mentioned here is Moses’ fear for his duties as mentioned in the 45th and 46th Ayat of this same Surah and also in Ash-Shu’ara/10-15, An-Naml/10 and Al-Qasas/30.

Ash-Shu’ara; 10-17:

10Once your Rabb [the Lord, the Cherisher, the Nurturer, the Sustainer] said to Moses: “Go to those wrongdoers; that people who act against their own good; 11the people of the Pharaoh; will they not surrender themselves under the guardianship of Allah?”
12Moses said: “O my Rabb [the Lord, the Cherisher, the Nurturer, the Sustainer]! Surely I fear that they shall deny me. 13My chest tightens, my tongue falls silent, so make Aaron a messenger as well. 14I also committed a crime against them. therefore I fear that they shall kill me”.
15Allah said: “Certainly not as you think! Now, you both go with Our evidence/signs. Surely, We will be with you We will hear you. 16,17Now, you both go to the Pharaoh and say ‘Indeed We have come here as the messengers of your Rabb [the Lord, the Cherisher, the Nurturer, the Sustainer] to take Israelites out with us’”.

An-Naml; 8-12:

8-12And when he came close to the fire, he was called: “Blessed is the one who is in and next to the fire and! And Allah, Rabb [the Lord, the Cherisher, the Nurturer, the Sustainer] of all worlds [Al-Alemin] is exonerated from all deficiencies!

“O Moses! Surely, I am Allah, the Most Exalted, the Most Powerful, the Most Honorable, the Invincible/the Subduer, the Best Law-Maker, the One Who Prevents Assimilation/Makes Solid!

“And bring forward your knowledge! – When he saw it caused to move like an invisible entity, he fled away. – O Moses, do not fear! Surely I; My Messengers do not fear in the presence of Me. But for those who act against their own good, who turn to good after having done evil, surely I am the Most Forgiving, the Most Merciful. –
“And engage the power within your chest, in nine170 Ayat [evidence/sign], you will come out perfect and flawless to the Pharaoh and his people. Surely they are a transgressing people”.

Al-Qasas; 30- 32:

30-32And when he arrived there, he was called from a tree, from the right side of the valley that was located in that fertile piece of land: “O Moses! Surely, I am Allah, Rabb [the Lord, the Cherisher, the Nurturer, the Sustainer] of all worlds [Al-Alemin]! And bring forward your knowledge! – And when he saw his knowledge moving like an invisible entity, he ran away. – O Moses! Come closer, do not fear. You surely are one of those who are safe. Engage the strength you posses in your chest, you surely will come out perfectly.181 Draw your wing close to yourself from fear. These are two evidence sent from your Rabb [the Lord, the Cherisher, the Nurturer, the Sustainer] for the Pharaoh and his men. Indeed they have become a transgressing people”.

 

Ta Ha; 45, 46:

45Moses and Aaron said: “O our Rabb [the Lord, the Cherisher, the Nurturer, the Sustainer]! We fear that he will treat us harshly or transgress upon us”.
46Allah said: “Do not fear, surely I will be with both of you, I will hear and see.

Subject of the verb tahruju [it will get out] that is mentioned in the 22nd Ayah is not “the hand” but “you.”  This expression was confused as the verb’s “second male person singular” and “third person female person singular” forms are same.   What meant here is the appointment of Vizier Aaron by Moses, who was assigned to assist Moses, to convey his messages flawlessly, perfectly and completely.

Asa Transforming into a Dragon

Al-A’raf; 106- 108:

106the Pharaoh said: “If you have come with evidence, then bring it forth if you are one of those who tell the truth”.
107,108Then Moses threw his knowledge forth and it obviously became “a devourer” . And he pulled out his strength and put it open; then his strength was excellent and perfect for the audience.

Ash-Shu’ara; 32:

32Then Moses bring his knowledge forward; and suddenly the knowledge of Moses has become a “devourer”.

Sub’an

Sub’an is derived from the word seab, meaning of which is “flux of water and blood.” Meandering course of the gullies in the valley, curly hair of the beloved one are defined by the poet by using this word. Plural of this word is Sub’an. in its singular form, Sub’an means “a long and strong, rat-hunting snake.” (Lisan “sab” mad. Tac; “sab” art.)

That means, the literal meaning of sub’an is “a flood that wipes all that is before it.” The reason for the use of this word to name a snake that hunts rats is that snakes do look like meandering rivers by its long and curly form and they devour any rat they come upon. The reason to make an analogy for the knowledge of Moses is that the divine wahy [revelation] will eventually devour and eliminate all plans and plots of the men/the superstition.
In these Ayat, the fact that the ideas, theses, and bigotry belonging to Moses’ enemies when he exhibited his accumulation were eliminated and the truth came to the surface.
The word of “Sub’an” in the Ayah can be viewed as a flood that drags whatever it comes across or as a snake hunting mice, but what is mentioned here is that whatever in front of Moses’ accumulation was erased and engulfed. It is narrated that the ideas and knowledge brought by Moses refuted and cancelled the theses of the magicians on the day of adornment in the competitions conducted in a similar manner with “Open Session” before the Pharaoh and the public because nothing can confront Wahy. This attribution is mentioned in  many places in the Qur’an.

Al-Mursalat; 1-7:

1-7I hereby adduce the Ayat of the Qur’an that were revealed division by division and overthrow all those which oppose it, revive and reanimate the communities and separate the truth and the superstitious as they revive the communities, grant admonition as an excuse or a warning that, surely, what you are threatened, frightened will occur.

As-Saffat; 1-5:

1-5Witness are those Ayat of the Qur’an which are set/set in ranks then shout and drag and then recite admonitions that your God is absolutely the One and the Only. He is Rabb [the Lord, the Cherisher, the Nurturer, the Sustainer] of all that is in the Heavens and on the Earth and all that is between. He is Rabb [the Lord, the Cherisher, the Nurturer, the Sustainer] of the Orient as well.

Adh-Dhariyat; 1-6:

1-6By those which scatter dust, haul the weight in their wake, then flow easily and then distribute a command that what you have been threatened is indeed true. Surely, recompense of what have been done will be fulfilled as well.

An-Nazi’at;1-3,26:

1-5By the gravitation in the universe, the thrust in the universe,stars; galaxies; the Sun, the Moon and their orbital movement around their own axes and around the star they orbit, formation of the night and the day, conditions suitable for life, the tides, the night and the day, and the seasons as a consequence,formation of the conditions suitable for all kinds of living creatures and plants to survive that and by the Ayat of the Qur’an which;impose a constant distress, depression and guilt upon those who consciously deny the Divinity of Allah and the fact that He is Rabb [Lord, the Cherisher, the Nurturer, the Sustainer];

is easy upon the believers and facilitates their affairs, gives good tidings to them, makes them happy;

is conveyed from hand to hand, through words and hearts; always prevails; make people pay attention; arranges all affairs, personal and social; sets forth commands, prohibitions and principles for every affair;320 that,

26surely, there is a lesson for those who are in awe with respect and love to their Rabb [Lord, the Cherisher, the Nurturer, the Sustainer] when “those who will observe what his two powers/wealth and acquaintances will offer to him/face his deeds on the Day and the infidels; those who consciously deny the Divinity of Allah and the fact that He is Rabb [Lord, the Cherisher, the Nurturer, the Sustainer] will say, ‘If only I was a piece of soil’”.

Bigotry is destined to destruction.

Al-Isra; 81:

81And say: “When truth has come, superstition has vanished. Surely, superstition will perish”.

Bigotry is destroyed by truth.

Al-Anbiya; 18:

18Quite contrary, We smash the superstition with the Truth that it scatters into pieces. Then you would amaze at how the superstition perished. O woe to you for the titles you ascribe to Allah!

The thing used to make Moses victorious and what  Moses’ staff (accumulation)  was, were depicted by our Rabb in the Surah Yunus.

 Yunus; 79- 82:

79And the Pharaoh said: “Gather all scholars who are capable of uttering words of knowledge!”.
80And when those wise scholars came Moses said to them: “Throw what you have!”.
81,82And when they threw what they had Moses said to them: “What you have is nothing but an illusion/deception. Surely, Allah will disclose that it is fake and useless. No doubt that Allah does not correct the works of mischief-makers. And Allah expresses the truth with His own words and implements it even though sinners do not like it”.

 

As it is seen, the staff was construed in these Ayat as “Allah’s words.”

Sea Mentioned in the Moses Passages

Another important factor to understand the  Moses passages in the Qur’an accurately is to know the words of “bahr” and “yemm” mentioned in the passages accurately.
As these two words are generally translated as “sea;” it is naturally accepted that Moses took the Israelites through the Red Sea and that the Pharaoh and his people were drowned in the Red Sea.
Actually, the Qur’an and the Arabic language do not allow this. In order for us to understand the reality, we are presenting the actual meaning of these words.

Bahr

Bahr means “a huge amount of water, whether fresh or saltwater.” This word is the antonym of “land.” The original meaning of this word is “to split.” This is because the water splits the land. In the ancient Arabic poetry, the Euphrates was named as a bahr. It is common to define large saltwater bodies [seas] as bahr. (Lisan, entry “bhr;” Tac, entry “bhr.”)

The word Bahr appears in the Official Mushaf; in those Surat that are related to Moses: Al-Baqara/50, Al-A’raf/138, Yunus/90, Ta-Ha/77, Ash-Shu’ara/63 and Ad-Ad-Dukhan/24.

Yemm

“Yamm” means “bahr[sea]/a huge amount of water.” Leys defined this word as “a sea, depth and limits of which are unknown.” However, this suggestion cannot be true as in the Surah Ta-Ha/39 of the Qur’an, it is explicitly stated that the chest that carried Moses stranded on the yam. Then, Moses was set into the Nile and the chest stranded to the coastline of the Nile.
This word is believed to have been borrowed into Arabic from Assyrian. (Lisan “yemm” mad. Tac “yemm” art.)

This word appears in the Surat Al-A’raf/136, Ta-Ha/39 (twice); 78,97, Al-Qasas/7, 40 and Adh-Dhariyat/40.

When the places where Moses and his family and also Pharaoh lived are considered, the words bahr and yamm should be translated as “a huge amount of water/the river” when they appear in the passages that are related to Moses. When these Ayat are examined, it can be seen that Pharaoh certainly drowned in the same waters, in which the baby Moses was put, but not in a sea/the Red Sea.

Above, we stated that the fact that the word “yemm” was taken from Syriac to the  Arabic language is specified in the archaic dictionaries. We understand that this is very likely as “sea” is called “yam” in Hebrew. It is not already expected from the Bedouins who had never seen a sea in their lives to name a sea. Objects are named by those who are involved with it. This is seen clearly when the names of the natural and artificial objects in the entire world are examined.

In the present Holy Scriptures, it was translated in some parts as “sea,” “Red Sea” and “Reed Sea” in some others. For example:

Psalms; Psalm 136, clauses 11- 16

136:11 And took out Israel from among them: for his mercy is unchanging for ever:
136:12 With a strong hand and an outstretched arm: for his mercy is unchanging for ever.
136:13 To him who made a way through the Red Sea: for his mercy is unchanging for ever:
136:14 And let Israel go through it: for his mercy is unchanging for ever:
136:15 By him Pharaoh and his army were overturned in the Red Sea: for his mercy is unchanging for ever.
136:16 To him who took his people through the waste land: for his mercy is unchanging for ever.

 Exodus 14. Chapter.

14:1 And the Lord said to Moses,
14:2 Give orders to the children of Israel to go back and put up their tents before Pi-hahiroth, between Migdol and the sea, in front of Baal-zephon, opposite to which you are to put up your tents by the sea.
14:3 And Pharaoh will say of the children of Israel, They are wandering without direction, they are shut in by the waste land.
14:4 And I will make Pharaoh’s heart hard, and he will come after them and I will be honoured over Pharaoh and all his army, so that the Egyptians may see that I am the Lord. And they did so.
14:5 And word came to Pharaoh of the flight of the people: and the feeling of Pharaoh and of his servants about the people was changed, and they said, Why have we let Israel go, so that they will do no more work for us?
14:6 So he had his war-carriage made ready and took his people with him:
14:7 And he took six hundred carriages, all the carriages of Egypt, and captains over all of them.
14:8 And the Lord made the heart of Pharaoh hard, and he went after the children of Israel: for the children of Israel had gone out without fear.
14:9 But the Egyptians went after them, all the horses and carriages of Pharaoh, and his horsemen, and his army, and overtook them in their tents by the sea, by Pihahiroth, before Baal-zephon.
14:10 And when Pharaoh came near, the children of Israel, lifting up their eyes, saw the Egyptians coming after them, and were full of fear; and their cry went up to God.
14:11 And they said to Moses, Was there no resting-place for the dead in Egypt, that you have taken us away to come to our death in the waste land? why have you taken us out of Egypt?
14:12 Did we not say to you in Egypt, Let us be as we are, working for the Egyptians? for it is better to be the servants of the Egyptians than to come to our death in the waste land.
14:13 But Moses said, Keep where you are and have no fear; now you will see the salvation of the Lord which he will give you today; for the Egyptians whom you see today you will never see again.
14:14 The Lord will make war for you, you have only to keep quiet.
14:15 And the Lord said to Moses, Why are you crying out to me? give the children of Israel the order to go forward.
14:16 And let your rod be lifted up and your hand stretched out over the sea, and it will be parted in two; and the children of Israel will go through on dry land.
14:17 And I will make the heart of the Egyptians hard, and they will go in after them: and I will be honoured over Pharaoh and over his army, his war-carriages, and his horsemen.
14:18 And the Egyptians will see that I am the Lord, when I get honour over Pharaoh and his war-carriages and his horsemen.
14:19 Then the angel of God, who had been before the tents of Israel, took his place at their back; and the pillar of cloud, moving from before them, came to rest at their back:
14:20 And it came between the army of Egypt and the army of Israel; and there was a dark cloud between them, and they went on through the night; but the one army came no nearer to the other all the night.
14:21 And when Moses’ hand was stretched out over the sea, the Lord with a strong east wind made the sea go back all night, and the waters were parted in two and the sea became dry land.
14:22 And the children of Israel went through the sea on dry land: and the waters were a wall on their right side and on their left.
14:23 Then the Egyptians went after them into the middle of the sea, all Pharaoh’s horses and his war-carriages and his horsemen.
14:24 And in the morning watch, the Lord, looking out on the armies of the Egyptians from the pillar of fire and cloud, sent trouble on the army of the Egyptians;
14:25 And made the wheels of their war-carriages stiff, so that they had hard work driving them: so the Egyptians said, Let us go in flight from before the face of Israel, for the Lord is fighting for them against the Egyptians.
14:26 And the Lord said to Moses, Let your hand be stretched out over the sea, and the waters will come back again on the Egyptians, and on their war-carriages and on their horsemen.
14:27 And when Moses’ hand was stretched out over the sea, at dawn the sea came flowing back, meeting the Egyptians in their flight, and the Lord sent destruction on the Egyptians in the middle of the sea.
14:28 And the waters came back, covering the war-carriages and the horsemen and all the army of Pharaoh which went after them into the middle of the sea; not one of them was to be seen.
14:29 But the children of Israel went through the sea walking on dry land, and the waters were a wall on their right side and on their left.
14:30 So that day the Lord gave Israel salvation from the hands of the Egyptians; and Israel saw the Egyptians dead on the sea’s edge.
14:31 And Israel saw the great work which the Lord had done against the Egyptians, and the fear of the Lord came on the people and they had faith in the Lord and in his servant Moses.

 

Split of the sea with the asa (staff)

Ash-Shu’ara; 63:

63Then We revealed to Moses: “Hit that large body of water/river with your knowledge!”. Then that large body of water/river was split /dams were set and each dam became like a great mountain.

Note:

This Ayah must actually be arranged in the Mushaf after the Ayat 50 and 51. Its arrangement in the sixty third line causes misunderstanding of the Ayah and formation of wrong beliefs.

Baqara; 50:

50And when We split open the large body of water/the river to save your lives and drowned the Pharaoh and his people while you were observing.

What is narrated in these Ayat is that Moses was revealed to build dams over the Nile using his knowledge and then the water was divided into parts as the mountains; i.e. high dams were built. That is to say, Moses did not create mountain-like waters at both sides by means of splitting the Red Sea. Moses built dams on the Nile through his knowledge and each dam was as high as a mountain. The thing explained here is this. Later on, this dam would be demolished and the Pharaoh and his people would be killed in the flood of the dam.

Oldest known dam was the 15 meters high dam that was built over the Nile in ca. 2900 B.C. According to an explicit account found in the Qur’an, there were multiple dams rather than one.
As can be understood from the other Ayat, Moses, during the period of his stay in Egypt, hid is actual intention and cut the river with dams, made canals in the plains, and made the older waterbeds available for agriculture. This is why the Pharaoh says: “Aren’t these rivers beneath me are mine?”

In this Ayah, other phases from the past of the Israelites are narrated as well. These periods:
Dividing of the water, establishment of dams, salvation of the Israelites, and drowning of the Pharaoh’s people in the water before the eyes of the Israelites. Later on, Moses took his nation and those Copts who believed him with him and made them pass through these places and pulled the Pharaoh and his army who were pursuing them to the agricultural areas and ensured by burning the dams when they were there that the Pharaoh and his army were drowned.

Here, these events were expressed in a short sentence. We do not think that all these lasted a few hours. This event took place in a process that lasted years.
Another point that draws attentions here is that  drowning of the Pharaoh and his people was seen and watched by the Israelites and this is told in the Holy Scripture as follows:

Exodus 14. Chapter. 25-31st  sentences

14:25 And made the wheels of their war-carriages stiff, so that they had hard work driving them: so the Egyptians said, Let us go in flight from before the face of Israel, for the Lord is fighting for them against the Egyptians.
14:26 And the Lord said to Moses, Let your hand be stretched out over the sea, and the waters will come back again on the Egyptians, and on their war-carriages and on their horsemen.
14:27 And when Moses’ hand was stretched out over the sea, at dawn the sea came flowing back, meeting the Egyptians in their flight, and the Lord sent destruction on the Egyptians in the middle of the sea.
14:28 And the waters came back, covering the war-carriages and the horsemen and all the army of Pharaoh which went after them into the middle of the sea; not one of them was to be seen.
14:29 But the children of Israel went through the sea walking on dry land, and the waters were a wall on their right side and on their left.
14:30 So that day the Lord gave Israel salvation from the hands of the Egyptians; and Israel saw the Egyptians dead on the sea’s edge.
14:31 And Israel saw the great work which the Lord had done against the Egyptians, and the fear of the Lord came on the people and they had faith in the Lord and in his servant Moses.

 

It is understood here that this event of drowning did not take place in the Red Sea because it is not possible to see their drowning and dead bodies from one side of the sea to another in about one hundred kilometers of distance.

Jetting of twelve springs from the stone with the asa

Al-A’raf; 160:

160And We divided them into twelve tribes who are led by grandsons. And when his people asked him for water, We revealed to Moses: “Implement your knowledge upon your stonyhearted people ”. Then his stonyhearted people divided into twelve nations/people . Each of those people learned well/marked where they receive water. And We shaded them with clouds. We sent down to them manna and honey/quail; “Eat from the good ones of those blessings We conferred upon you as sustenance!” They did not act to us wrongfully, they acted wrongfully to themselves.

Baqara; 60:

60And when Moses asked for water for his people and We said to him: “Impose your experience upon your stonehearted people!”. Then, he divided his stonehearted people into twelve groups/cities. The people of each city learned/marked where they would obtain their water. –Eat and drink from the blessings of Allah and do not make mischief and transgress on the Earth.-

Our analysis here applies to both Ayat.

Stone

We have learned in the Ayat above that asa is the “knowledge of Moses.” Now, let us deal with what the “stone” that Moses hit with his knowledge [asa] actually is. As may be known, “stone” is the symbol of hardness/strictness. Our Rabb [Lord, the Cherisher, the Nurturer, the Sustainer] revealed that the Israelites were stonyhearted, even stricter. Therefore, what meant with the stone is “the stonyhearted Israelites.”

Baqara: 74

74Then your hearts become hardened; they were like stones now, even harder. And surely, there are such stones from which rivers emerge, and there are such stones that split open and waters gush out of them, and there are such stones that fall in awe due to their respect, love to Allah and knowledge. Allah is not unaware of nor apathetic to what you do.

Darb

As explained in the Lisan al-Arab and Tac al-Arus, the “actual” meaning of darb is “to build something upon something else.” Starting from this “actual” meaning, this word is used in hundreds of meanings such as “to hit, to clash, to split, to squeeze, to set off, heartbeat, pulse, to exemplify, etc. Within the scope of Tabyin al-Qur’an [Manifestation of the Qur’an], we detailed it in the analysis of the section that is related to Ayyub [Job].
The word means, as used herein, “to build something upon something else.”.

In this Ayat, another issue is the word of “ayn.” In regards to this word, following information is provided in the archaic dictionaries: The term ayn, as mentioned in this Ayah, was defined in ancient lexicons in more than hundred meanings such

Ayn

Also, as explained in the Lisan al-Arab and Tac al-ArusLisan al-Arab, this word has more than hundred meanings such as “sight, eye, sun, spring, rain, commodity, gold, human, life, community, PEOPLE OF A REGION
For whatever reason, the word ayn in these verses has always been translated as “the spring.” Yet, it should have been translated as “community, the people of the region” for the passage “Moses.” It is because our Rabb pointed out that it must be understood this way with the expression of “And We divided them into twelve tribes with a grandson leader for each” in the beginning of the Ayah.
We see it in the Surah Al-Ma’idah clearly.

Al-Ma’idah; 12:

12And surely, Allah took the solemn covenant of Israelites. And We sent to them twelve supervisors/leaders. And Allah said: “I surely am with you. Should you perform Salat [Support financially and spiritually; establish and maintain institutions that enlighten the community], give zaqat/tax, believe in My messengers, support them and loan Allah a good loan, I will surely forgive your evil deeds and admit you into the gardens of Jannah [Heaven/Paradise], underneath of which rivers flow. And whoever among you blasphemes; consciously deny the Divinity of Allah and the fact that He is Rabb [the Lord, the Cherisher, the Nurturer, the Sustainer] has certainly gone astray from the righteous path”.

Division of Israelites into twelve groups/tribes and assigning of a governor for each of them is also mentioned in the Holy Bible. This means, the Qur’an acknowledges this part of the Holy Bible.

Numbers; Chapter 1, clauses 1- 16:

1:1 And the Lord said to Moses in the waste land of Sinai, in the Tent of meeting, on the first day of the second month, in the second year after they came out of the land of Egypt,
1:2 Take the full number of the children of Israel, by their families, and by their fathers’ houses, every male by name;
1:3 All those of twenty years old and over, who are able to go to war in Israel, are to be numbered by you and Aaron.
1:4 And to give you help, take one man from every tribe, the head of his father’s house.
1:5 These are the names of those who are to be your helpers: from Reuben, Elizur, the son of Shedeur;
1:6 From Simeon, Shelumiel, the son of Zurishaddai;
1:7 From Judah, Nahshon, the son of Amminadab;
1:8 From Issachar, Nethanel, the son of Zuar;
1:9 From Zebulun, Eliab, the son of Helon;
1:10 Of the children of Joseph: from Ephraim, Elishama, the son of Ammihud; from Manasseh, Gamaliel, the son of Pedahzur,
1:11 From Benjamin, Abidan, the son of Gideoni;
1:12 From Dan, Ahiezer, the son of Ammi-shaddai;
1:13 From Asher, Pagiel, the son of Ochran;
1:14 From Gad, Eliasaph, the son of Reuel;
1:15 From Naphtali, Ahira, the son of Enan.
1:16 These are the men named out of all the people, chiefs of their fathers’ houses, heads of the tribes of Israel.

 

The phrase, “Hit your stonyhearted people with your knowledge,” which is mentioned in these Ayat, must be emphasized as well. As can be understood from the lines mentioned in those Ayat; “And when his tribe asked him for water, each of his people knew from where they would receive water, then Moses had once asked for water for his people;” people of  Moses suffered water shortage that would eventually cause disputes among them. At that time, our Rabb  revealed to Moses to use his knowledge/experience.

As it will be remembered, Moses had learnt what water shortage might cost by the Midian water when he escaped Egypt and went to Midian. He had experiences in this regard.

This matter is detailed in the Surah Al-Qasas:

The word Hayyah is one of the terms that have critical importance in the proper comprehension of the Moses passage. Therefore, we wish to provide details on this word: Derived from the word Hayat, hayyah means “to live once”. Arabs use this word with many examples: snake is called hayyah due to its long lifespan. Anyone who happens to have sharp sight is called “he sees better than hayyah”. Anyone who is malevolent-insidious is called “he is more cruel than hayyah”. Those who are beneficial and protective to his community is called “he is the hayyah of the earth/his region”. Those who live long, whether female or male, is called “she/he is such a hayyah”. When the individual is his prime in terms of intellect, mental capacity and genius, he is called “she/he is the hayyah of the valley”. Hayyah, in the context of simile, is used to describe the stars that lie between the twin quasar of the constellation Ursa Major and Alcaid [the dead/dormant star]. (Lisan, clause “hayyah”; Tac, clause “hayyah”)
Tahhiyah/salutation [May Allah give you a long life] is derived form the same root as well.
In short, meaning of this word is “life and vitality”. Basically, hayyah does not describe the snake itself, instead it describes the long life of the snake. Also mentioned here is the phrase hayyatun tes’a [tes’a that runs continuously]. The exact literal translation of this phrase would be “the one with seven lives” which means “evading the death many times”. While this word may be used for those who survived many illnesses, troubles and disasters, it is also used for cats and snakes.
To better comprehend hayyah, as mentioned in this Ayah, it must be considered that the object held by Moses in his right hand is described differently by Allah. In An-Naml/10 and Al-Qasas/31, the object held by Moses in his right hand is described as “it motivates, almost like an invisible entity”. That is, that which Moses holds in his right hand resembles an invisible entity that motivates things”. So, what this invisible entity that motivates is? It is the life/soul of humans and beasts.
This expression represents the spiritual property of the revelation. Soul [ruh] is a name of the Qur’an while at the same time it is the name of that object [scripture] in Moses’ right hand. Then, in Ash-Shu’ara/193, it is stated that the ancient Scripture also had soul/life with the statement: The trustworthy soul/divine messages-reliable knowledge in Arabic is sent down to your heart for you to become one of the Warner with it [clearly with the Scripture]. And surely, it [trustworthy soul/reliable knowledge] was there in the Scripture of your predecessors.

In the case the word hayyah, as mentioned in the 27th Ayah, is interpreted as “the snake”, the term “fear”, as mentioned in the 21st Ayah, will naturally be interpreted as “fear the snake”. Yet, the fear mentioned here is Moses’ fear for his duties as mentioned in the 45th and 46th Ayat of this same Surah and also in Ash-Shu’ara/10-15, An-Naml/10 and Al-Qasas/30. Subject of the verb tahruju [it will get out] that is mentioned in the 22nd Ayah is not “the hand” but “you”. What meant here is that appointment of Aaron by Moses, who was assigned to assist Moses, to convey his messages flawlessly, perfectly and completely.
In the 20th ad 23th Ayat mentioned are the two Ayat revealed to Moses. First of these two Ayat is the revelation [Scripture/Torah] that was given to him as a replacement of his scepter; and the second is the backup/Aaron, who would increase his strength when necessary. In the following Ayat, we will find out that Moses had an insufficient ability of expressing and asked the assistance of his brother, Aaron, and this wish of him was fulfilled.
Asa [scripture] and yad-i baize [absolute power] are detailed in the passages of the Surah Al-A’raf which are related to Moses.

The two evidences/signs that are stated in the 20th and 23th Ayat to be given to Moses is summarized in the Surah Al-Furqan as follows: “And surely We handed over to Moses the Scripture and appointed his brother Aaron as his companion, assistant and supporter. Then We said: “Go to those people who deny Our Ayat!”. Ultimately, We disintegrated and destroyed them. (Al-Furqan/35,36)

Ayat of this paragraph are differently organized in the Official Mushaf as well in the following order: “20, 25-36, 21-23”.

According to the classical accounts, the exact meaning of asa is “accumulation; something held tight”. In this form it defines “the Qur’an” exactly. It is uses as the specific name for “the specter” not only because “the hand and the fingers are gathered on it” but it “accumulates (embodies) in itself many benefits such as being a support to lean upon, a tool to shake leaves, a weapon, a shovel, etc”.

When this word is attributed to Moses, it means “knowledge of Moses; something that Moses held tightly/firmly”, which – as can be understood from the respective Ayah – represents the “revelations sent to Moses and his empirical know-how”. The scepter of Moses is defined very explicitly. When the Surat Al-Baraqa/63, 93; Al-A’raf/145, 171; Maryam/12 are examined, it can be found that “the object that is held tightly” is “the Scripture/the Divine Wahy”. Furthermore, as can be seen in the division 181, our Rabb [Lord, the Cherisher, the Nurturer, the Sustainer] stated in the Surah Yunus: “And when those scholars who spoke eloquently arrived, Moses said: “Throw what you have!”. And when they threw, Moses said: “What you have brought is nothing but a smoke and mirrors, an illusion. Surely, Allah will reveal that it is nothing but an illusion. Surely, Allah does not fix what mischief-makers have done wrong. And Allah manifests the truth with His own word even if it the sinners dislike” thus implying that the sorcerers were defeated not by the scepter but by the “words of Allah”.

Asa appears 6 times in the Qur’an. Asa in the Surah Ta-Ha/18 is “the shepherd’s staff”, i.e. a common “scepter”. Our Rabb [Lord, the Cherisher, the Nurturer, the Sustainer] gave this scepter to Moses during the revelation of the first Wahy. Others, on the other hand, stand for the “empirical know-how of Moses and also the knowledge he learned from the revelations”. The asa that Moses used against Pharaoh, to cross the sea and to chastise the stonyhearted Israelites is actually the “knowledge of Moses” [What was revealed to him and what he had learned and experienced to that time].

Sub’an is derived from the word seab, meaning of which is “flux of water and blood”. Meandering course of the gullies in the valley, curly hair of the beloved one are defined by the poet by using this word. Plural of this word is Sub’an. in its singular form, Sub’an means “a long and strong, rat-hunting snake”.
That means, the literal meaning of sub’an is “a flood that wipes all that is before it”. The reason for the use of this word to name a snake that hunts rats is that snakes do look like meandering rivers by its long and curly form and they devour any rat they come upon. The reason to make an analogy for the knowledge of Moses is that the divine wahy [revelation] will eventually devour and eliminate all plans and plots of the men/the superstition.

Yad-i Baiza: Yad is generally translated as “a hand” but it metaphorically means “power, wealth, authority, reign, blessing, bow, all works performed by hand”.
The power mentioned here is defined as “the power in his pocket/bosom” in other Ayat and in the Official Mushaf: AnNaml/12, Al-Qasas/32; and this power is Aaron.
Baiza is a derivative of the same root, from which the Turkish word “beyaz” [white] is derived. Following information on this word can be found in widely available vocabulary books: “The original meaning of this word is an egg. Bayaz means “white as an egg”. The bayzae form of this word expresses “excessive whiteness, brightness”. The sun, a woman with a smooth, white complexion, the bare soil with no plants on it, 14th and 15th nights of the Lunar Months are all named baiza. The phrase Yad-i Baiza represents “anything that is proven; an evidence”. According to these explanations, this word can be used as an adjective that means “snow white” which, in turn, is the expression of perfection and flawlessness.
The white [flawless] look of the “power” as mentioned in the Ayat stems from the excellent talent of Aaron in expression and rhetoric. As it is understood from the Ayat, Moses was not good at expressing himself due to his lack of knowledge in Hebrew or an anomaly on his tongue. This defect of Moses was compensated by appointing his brother, Aaron, as his vizier, secretary, spokesman. This matter is related explicitly in the respective passage of the Surah Ta-Ha.

What explained here is that Moses was revealed to build dams over the river that would collapse in the future to drown Pharaoh and his soldiers. What narrated in these Ayat is that Moses was revealed to build dams over the Nile using his knowledge and then the water was divided into parts as the mountains; i.e. high dams were built. Oldest known dam was the 15 meters high “Sadd Al-Kafarah” that was built over the Nile between ca. 2900-2750 B.C. According to an explicit account found in the Qur’an, there were multiple dams rather than one.
Scenes depicting the collapse of the dam and Pharaoh drowning can be found in the Official Mushaf: Surat Ad-Dukhan/23-24, Al-Qasas/40, Adh-Dhariyat/40.

The “actual” meaning of darb is “to built something upon something else”. Starting from this “actual” meaning, this word is used in various meanings such as “to hit, to clash, to split, to squeeze, to set off, heartbeat, pulse, to exemplify, etc.”. Within the scope of Tebyin’ul Kur’an [Manifestation of the Qur’an], we detailed it in the analysis of the section that is related to Ayyub [Job]. The word means, as used herein, “to build something upon something else”.

We have learned in the Ayat above that asa is the “knowledge of Moses”. Now, let us deal with what the “stone” that Moses hit with his knowledge [asa] actually is. As may be known, “stone” is the symbol of hardness/strictness. Our Rabb [Lord, the Cherisher, the Nurturer, the Sustainer] revealed that the Israelites were stonyhearted, even stricter. Therefore, what meant with the stone is “the stonyhearted Israelites”. This matter is mentioned in the Official Mushaf; in the Surah Al-Baqara/74.

The term ayn, as mentioned in this Ayah, was defined in ancient lexicons in more than hundred meanings such as “sight, eye, sun, spring, rain, commodity, gold, human, life, community, people of a region…”. For whatever reason, the word ayn has always been translated as “the spring”. Yet, it should have been translated as “community, the people of the region” for the passage “Moses”. Then, when He wishes this term to be understood this way, our Rabb [the Lord, the Nurturer, the Cherisher, the Sustainer] stated at the beginning of each respective Ayah as “And We divided them into twelve tribes with a grandson leader for each”.

You can see it in the Surah Al-Ma’idah:12.

Division of Israelites into twelve groups/tribes and assigning of a governor for each of them is also mentioned in the Holy Bible; Numbers 1:1-16. This means, the Qur’an acknowledges this part of the Holy Bible.
The phrase, “Hit your stonyhearted people with your knowledge”, which is mentioned in these Ayat, must be emphasized as well. As can be understood from the lines mentioned in those Ayat; “And when his tribe asked him for water, each of his people knew from where they would receive water, then Moses had once asked for water for his people”, people of  Moses suffered water shortage that would eventually cause disputes among them. At the time, our Rabb [Lord, the Cherisher, the Nurturer, the Sustainer] revealed to Moses to use his knowledge/experience.
Moses had learnt what water shortage might cost by the Midian water when he escaped Egypt and went to Midian. He had experiences thereof. This matter is detailed in the Official Mushaf: Surah Al-Qasas/23-25 (Division 150).
All these mean that Moses divided Israelites into twelve tribes to live in twelve different locations due to the fact that a communal life would eventually cause problems among his people. And thus solved the water shortage problem. As it is known, settlements are founded by or on seaside or riverside.

Al-Qasas; 23-25:

23And when Moses arrived at the well of Midian, he found a people with a leader who were watering their flocks. And Moses found two women, who were not as strong as other people watering their flocks, and pulling their flock back. He said: “What is the matter with you?”. They said: “We cannot water our flock before those shepherds water their flocks and go; our father is a very old man”.
24Then Moses watered their flock. Then he went to the shade and said: “O my Rabb [the Lord, the Cherisher, the Nurturer, the Sustainer]! I surely am in need for whatever good you bestow upon me”.
25Then one of two women shyly approached Moses. She said: “Indeed my father invites you that he may pay you for watering our flock”. Moses came to her father and told him the story [Qassas]. Her father said: “Do not fear, you are now safe from that people who act against their own good by associating others with Allah”.

All these mean that Moses divided Israelites into twelve tribes to live in twelve different locations due to the fact that a communal life would eventually cause problems among his people. And thus solved the water shortage problem. As it is known, settlements are founded by or on seaside or riverside.

Making a dry path in the sea

Ta Ha;  77-79:

77And surely We revealed to Moses: “Travel by night with my servants without fearing to be caught and awing with respect and love/without being grateful to the Pharaoh and make a dry path for them in the large body of water/the river!”.
78the Pharaoh followed them with his armies but the large body of water/the river closed down while they were passing, drowning them.
79And the Pharaoh made his people stray from and did not show them the righteous path.

Conveyed in these Ayat is the revelation of the instruction to Moses that stated Moses’ tribe to travel by night without fearing to be caught up, making them work at night in water; without respect; without considering the feelings of the Pharaoh; and that dry paths would be opened in the Nile; then Pharaoh would drown in the Nile with his army following him.
The point in the Ayat requiring attention is that the walk will be carried out at night on the path that will be opened in plenty of water. This expression clearly means that they would finish this work slowly without being noticed by anyone and by making people work by the night. The point in this Ayah to be emphasized is that the path would be opened in the large body of water thanks to travelling by night. This phrase implies that “this would be done by having people work by night, without letting others to find out about it, without drawing attention

According to the expressions in the Qur’an, these events did not happen within minutes or hours but in a rather long time. When Prophet Moses returned to Egypt, he worked safely for years with his people under the rule of Pharaoh.
When the expressions in Al-Qasas/14 of “And when Moses grew up to become a brave young man, We revealed him laws and knowledge,” are taken into account, and as such age of maturity was specified in Al-‘Aqaf/15 as “forty years of age,” and as history says by rumor that the Messenger also became a prophet at the age of forty, prophethood to Moses must have been granted at the age of forty.
In the 7th clause of Exodus/7th  Chapter, the age of Moses when he asked Pharaoh about taking his nation and the believers out of Egypt (this is not his first application) was eighty. This means that after Moses returned to Egypt, he lived in Egypt about forty years until the Exodus. Note: according to the 7th clause of the 34th Chapter, Moses died at the age of 120.

The expression of “without feeling fear” in the Ayat is a warning that what he did and what he would do must not be taken as betrayal and ungratefulness against the Pharaoh. Hence we see in Surah Ash-Shu’ara that the Pharaoh accused Moses of betrayal and ungratefulness and wanted Moses to exhibit respect and gratefulness.

Ash-Shu’ara; 18, 19:

  18the Pharaoh said: “Did we not raise you among us? Did you not spend many years of your life among us? 19Now look what you have done. You are one of those traitors…”.

 White Hand

One of the Ayat revealed to Moses is “Yed al-Beyza.” This noun phrase has come to be “snow white, shining hand” in the classical understanding. This expression takes place in Al-A’raf  107, 108, Ta Ha 23, Ash-Shu’ara 33, An-Naml 12, and Al-Qasas 32. Analyses of them are as follows:

Yed

 “Yad” in the original Ayat is generally translated as “a hand.” “Yed” word metaphorically means “power, wealth, authority, reign, blessing, bow, all works performed by hand.”
The power mentioned here is defined as “the power in his pocket/bosom” in other Ayat and in the Official Mushaf: An-Naml/12, Al-Qasas/32; and this power is Aaron.

Beyza

Baiza is a derivative of the same root, from which the Turkish word “beyaz” [white] is derived. Following information on this word can be found:
Biyz means an egg. Bayaz means “white as an egg.” The bayzae form of this word expresses “excessive whiteness, brightness.” The sun, a woman with a smooth, white complexion, the bare soil with no plants on it, 14th and 15th nights of the Lunar Months are all named baiza. The phrase Yad-i Baiza represents “anything that is proven; evidence.” (Lisan al-Arab) According to these explanations, this word can be used as an adjective that means “snow white” which, in turn, is the expression of perfection and flawlessness.
.

The white [flawless] look of the “power” as mentioned in the Ayat stems from the excellent talent of Aaron in expression and rhetoric. As it is understood from the Ta Ha/28 expressly, Moses was not good at expressing himself due to his lack of knowledge in Hebrew or an anomaly on his tongue. This defect of Moses was compensated by appointing his brother, Aaron, as his vizier, secretary, and spokesman. This matter is related explicitly in the respective passage of the Surah Ta-Ha.

Taking the Israelites through the water –drowning  of the Pharaoh and his people being dragged away by the flood –Rapidly leaving the sea.

Ad-Dukhan; 17- 24:

17-21And surely, We destroyed the people of the Pharaoh before them. And came to them an honorable messenger: “Give me back the servants of Allah. Surely, I am a reliable messenger who has been sent for you. Do not act arrogantly against Allah. Surely, I have brought you a clear authority. And surely, I seek refuge in my and your Rabb [the Lord, the Cherisher, the Nurturer, the Sustainer] lest you will stone me to death. And if you do not believe me, get away from me immediately”.
22Then Moses called upon his Rabb [the Lord, the Cherisher, the Nurturer, the Sustainer], saying: “Surely, they are a people of sinners”.
-“23,24Then set out with My servants in the night. Surely you are being pursued so be cautious. Release the large amount of water/river quickly. Surely, they are an army drowned in water.-

It is seen in these Ayat that Prophet Moses is given the plans of dispelling the Israelites from Egypt. There are no details. Moses will make the dry paths in the water and kill the Pharaoh and his men drowned. Moses had previously committed a murder and was suffering qualms of conscience. At this point, Moses was in a deadlock; he was in depression.
He would set off for travels in order to overcome the troubles in his mind and look for a solution to get rid of the depression.
We see this section in the Surah of Al-Kahf. The parable of Moses and Knowledgeable Servant states this.
We see in the parable that Moses learned from the “Ship” event that the attentions of the cruel people can be attracted; from “killing a lad” event that those who fight Allah can be killed; and from the “Wall” event that they must have the sufficient accumulation during the journey that would last long after the exodus and that it was necessary to hide their accumulations inside their walls. With this accumulation, he will realize these through the consent of Allah.

Yunus; 90- 92:

90-92And We took the Israelites across the large body of water/river. But the Pharaoh and his soldiers followed them immediately in transgression and enmity. And when drowning seized him he said: “I have surely believed that there exists no other deity but the One Whom Israelites believe, I have become one of those who surrendered”. – Just now? But you denied before and became of those mischief-makers. Today We will save you in your armor so you may be a sign for those who succeed you. – And surely, many of those people are apathetic/heedless to our Ayat/evidence/signs.

Baqara: 50

50And when We split open the large body of water/the river to save your lives and drowned the Pharaoh and his people while you were observing.

In these Ayat, other phases from the past of the Israelites are reminded. These periods are:

Division of water, establishment of the dam, Israelites’ passing through the dry areas between the split parts of the water and drowning of the Pharaoh and his people. Here, these events were expressed in a short sentence. As we stated above, we do not think that all these lasted a few hours. This event took place in a process that lasted years.

We can understand clearly from the Qur’an how the event of drowning took place. We have seen earlier that Moses built dams on the river and split the waters of the river like mountains. Moses demolished these dams and as the people of Sheba were destroyed with the “Arim seli (dam flood)” (Sheba; Ayat 15- 19) Pharaoh and his army were first dragged in the water of the dam and drowned being covered by the water.

Ad-Dukhan; 23, 24:

-“23,24Then set out with My servants in the night. Surely you are being pursued so be cautious. Release the large amount of water/river quickly. Surely, they are an army drowned in water.-

Al-Qasas; 40:

40We seized him and his soldiers and threw them in a large body of water/in the river. Now behold! How is the end of those who do wrong by associating others with Allah; who act against their own good!

Adh-Dhariyat; 40:

40Then We seized him and his armies and threw them into the large amount of water/river. For he was blameworthy/used to condemn.

The word “rehven” given in Ad-Dukhan/ 24 in the original Ayah is from the Ezdat and contains  both meanings of “Silence and excessive movement.” Our comment was “Excessive movement; rapid flowing.”
It is because in these Ayat, the Pharaoh and his people were dragged in water for a while before they were drowned.

Al-Qasas; 40:

40We seized him and his soldiers and threw them in a large body of water/in the river. Now behold! How is the end of those who do wrong by associating others with Allah; who act against their own good!

Adh-Dhariyat; 40:

40Then We seized him and his armies and threw them into the large amount of water/river. For he was blameworthy/used to condemn.

Ta Ha; 77- 79:

77And surely We revealed to Moses: “Travel by night with my servants without fearing to be caught and awing with respect and love/without being grateful to the Pharaoh and make a dry path for them in the large body of water/the river!”.
78the Pharaoh followed them with his armies but the large body of water/the river closed down while they were passing, drowning them.
79And the Pharaoh made his people stray from and did not show them the righteous path.

Another attention-inviting point here is the expression  in Baqara/50’ of “And We drowned the Pharaoh and his people while you were observing.” As can be understood from here, drowning of the Pharaoh  and his people were seen and watched by the Israelites. This  issue is stated in the Holy Scripture as follows:

Exodus 14. Chapter, 30th clause:

14:30 So that day the Lord gave Israel salvation from the hands of the Egyptians; and Israel saw the Egyptians dead on the sea’s edge.

It is understood here that this event of drowning did not take place in the Red Sea because it is not possible to see their drowning and dead bodies of the Pharaoh and his people from one side of the sea to another in about one hundred kilometers of distance.

In sum, as the proof of his task as a messenger, only a scripture was given to Moses and his brother Aaron was assigned to a duty of as a vizier.

The two evidences and signs granted to Moses and mentioned in the Ayat 20- 23 here are also summarized in Surah Al-Furqan:

Al-Furqan; 35, 36:

35And surely We handed over to Moses the Scripture and appointed his brother Aaron as his companion, assistant and supporter.
36Then We said: “Go to those people who deny Our Ayat!”. Ultimately, We disintegrated and destroyed them.

BURNING OF PROPHET ABRAHAM IN FIRE

As we handle the issue of miracle, it is necessary to mention here mandatorily that Prophet Abraham was not burnt out in the fire; in other words, the fire did not burn out Prophet Abraham. This issue was analyzed in our work called Tabyin sufficiently.  We are stating the passage in Tabyin herewith:

SUBJECT OF BURNING ABRAHAM

This subject must be excluded from the impact of some hearsay and analyzed in line with the true meanings of some expressions in the Qur’an.

The Ayat regarding the issue take place in three different Surat:

 (Al-Anbiya/68- 70)

68His people said: “Burn him if you can [throw into fire, put him into trouble] thus helping your gods”.
69We said: “O fire! Be cool and safe for Abraham”.
70And they plotted against him but We made them lose/suffer.

. (As-Saffat/97, 98)

97They said: “Build a wall for him/impose an embargo upon him and throw him into the blazing fire/a depressing trouble!”.
98They intended to set traps for Abraham but We made them the lowest.

 (Al-Ankabut /24)

24Then response of the people of Abraham was: “Kill him or burn him/put him in severe distress”. Then, Allah saved him from the fire/distress. Surely, there are evidence/signs in this for a people who believe.

In Al-Anbiya/68 and Al-Mu’minun/24, the expression of “ حرّقوهharriquhu” is available. This has so far been translated as “near!”We will analyze this expression a little:

The word “ حرّقواHarriku” is a plural imperative from the root of “ حرقhrq” as a tef’il bab (an Arabic grammar rule). The word “ تحريقtahriq,” its infinitive form, was barrowed into Turkish, which means “ignition.” (There is also the word of “ تحريكtahrik” with the meaning from the root of “hareket,”  which is “actuate, provoke.” They could be confused as the letters of Kaf and Kef are only expressed with the letter of “k” in Turkish.)

ح ر قhrq,” the root of the word, comes from the “flame of fire.” Tahrik means “the effect of fire on something.” Burns in eyes as a result of a disease, the pain in the heart relating to diseases;  burning of the plants due to the effect of cold, hot, and wind; feeling in the mouth as a result of hot and salty food, are expressed with this word. (Lisan al-Arab, c.2 , s. 404- 406)
In this case, this word can be used in the meanings of “inconvenience, cruelty, ruining” as well. Thus, in Turkish, when someone is in trouble, he/she says, “ben yandım, bittim, mahvoldum” (I was burn. I’m ruined, finished) and at the moment of a sudden problem “yandım anam!” (I was burn, mother!.)

In Al-Mu’minun/24, the expression of “Kill him or tahriq him[burn him]” attracts our attention. According to this expression, one of two punishments will be imposed on Abraham: Dead or “tahriq.” In “Tahriq,” killing of Abraham is not in question. They will not kill him but ruin him.

According to Al-Anbiya/70 and As-Saffat/98, his society made a place after their tahriq of Abraham. If they intended to annihilate Abraham, it would not be necessary to entrap him. They must have devised a plan like “How can we torture Abraham, make him suffer and ruin him?”

The words “Cahim” and “Nar” are not at all times used as “fire,” which is their actual meaning. As a metaphor, it is also used as excessive distress.

 (Al-Takathur/5, 6)

5,6Certainly not as you think! If you knew certainly, you would absolutely see the blazing fire. 7You will see the blazing fire as if looking with your eyes, you will see it real.

 (Al-Ma’idah/64)

64And the Jews said: “Tied are the hands of Allah [i.e. He is stingy]”. –Their hands were tied for what they said and they were cursed.- Quite contrary, both hands of Allah are untied; He spends however He pleases. And surely, that which has been revealed to you by Allah increases their transgression and blasphemy; conscious denial of the Divinity of Allah and the fact that He is Rabb [the Lord, the Cherisher, the Nurturer, the Sustainer]. And We planted animosity and hatred among those Jews forever. Whenever they light a fire to fight/corrupt, Allah put it out. And they race for making mischief on the Earth. Yet Allah does not like the mischief-makers.

Conveyed in these Ayat is the revelation of the instruction to Moses that stated Moses’ tribe to travel by night without fearing to be caught up, and that dry paths would be opened in the Nile; then Pharaoh would drown in the Nile with his army following him.

The point in this Ayah to be emphasized is that the path would be opened in the large body of water thanks to travelling by night. This phrase implies that “this would be done by having people work by night, without letting others to find out about it, without drawing attention”.
According to the Qur’an, these events did not happen within minutes or hours but in a rather long time. When Moses returned to Egypt, he worked safely for years with his people under the rule of Pharaoh.

Hashiat?, as mentioned in the Ayah, is a warning for him not to think that what he had done was not a betrayal against Pharaoh. Yet, we understand from the phrases mentioned in Ash-Shu’ara/18,19; “He [Pharaoh] said: “Did not we raise you among us when your were a boy? Did you not spend many years of your life among us? Then you have done what you have done. You are one of those the deniers/who are ungrateful…” that Pharaoh blamed Moses of treachery and ungratefulness.

Written by Hakkı YILMAZ
Translated by Ayşe AY YİĞİT

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