31 Jul

WAR IN ISLAM

WAR/BATTLE IN ISLAM

WAR/BATTLE IN ISLAM

The term “Savaş” in Turkish is used as the counterpart of the words in Arabic of “ قتال qıtal”, “ جهاد jihad”, and “ حرب harb محاربة muharaba”. As the meanings of these words are different, the word of “war/battle” in Islam is misunderstood as well.

The word of “ حرب harb” is defined in dictionaries as “نقيض السلم naqizus silm; opposite of distancing from negativities” (Lisan-ul Arab “حربhrb” article). Also in the dictionaries, the word of “ خربhıarb” written with خha (hıa) letter is defined as “نقيض العمران Naqızu’l Umran: destruction, opposite of construction” (Lisan-ul Arab “خرب hrb” art.). The words of “harab, harabe, tahrip” in Turkish language are the words derived in the core meaning of the word into Turkish language. This means that these two words have proximity in terms of meaning.

It will not be a true to view that the word of “war/battle” is the meaning of the words of “harb” and “muharaba” since in the exact meaning of the words of “harb” and “battle,” there is no dying and killing.

If we enlarge the word of “harb” “naqizus silm; opposite of being distant from negativities”, we can understand that it means “rendering all the positive things negative”. It is possible to list thousands of negativities here, ranging from breakdown of sturdy structures, demoralization of people and pillage of their commodities and properties to destruction of crops, orchards and forests, rendering people disabled or offend them, captivate them, imprison them.

In this case, from the word of “ محاربmuharib”, it is understood that it is a “person who would conduct destruction; who would destroy a place; break down sturdiness and integrity with an attempt and who would demolish peace.” As it is seen, it is not necessary that there is dying or killing in it.

In the Qur’an, words with the origin of “ ح ر بharb” take place eleven times. Four of them are in “ محرابmihrab”, one is in “ محاريبmeharyb”, one is in “ حاربharabah”, one is in “ يحاربونyuharibune and remaining four are in “ حربharb” form. When the verses where these words are used are scrutinized, it will be seen that the deed of such breakdown, destruction and demolition is an action that is specific for those who associate others with Allah and hypocrites. Here, only in Al-Baqara 279, there is the threat that the people who enjoy Riba [income that is earned easily without risk, working and effort] (those who earn money without labor, risk, and investment) will be devastated by Allah and His Messenger.

The word of “ جهاد Jihad” was acknowledged wrongly by the Muslims and given a meaning of “dying and killing”. We explained “Jihad” previously as follows:

Jihad” means “Using of the physical, mental and financial powers given by Allah to serve Allah; that is to say, it means making efforts to understand, tell, live and promote and expand the Qur’an”; and this is done by knowledge, labor, and goods. This can be conducted personally or institutionally.

The word of “ قتال Qıtal” is a reciprocal word and means “Mutual killing of persons”. Hence, “Muqatil (a person who is at war)” means “A person who took the risk of dying and killing”. The “Battle/War” that we will pore over here is the equivalent of the word of “ قتال qıtal, مقاتلةmuqatalah (killing-dying).”

When the Qur’an is examined from the beginning to the end, it will be seen clearly that the objective of Islam is the value of the life of a person and his/her happiness. Hence, the meaning of the word of Islam is already “Distancing the humans and societies from all kinds of negativities and bring them to perfection in every aspect”.

It will be remembered that our Rabb (Lord, the Cherisher, the Nurturer, the Sustainer) gave the following orders to the Muslims and did not give any order for battle/war.

Surah Fussilat 33, 34:

33,34And who else is better in speech than the one who invites to Allah, does righteous deeds and says: “I am among the Muslims”? And the good and the evil are not the same. Repel evil with that which is the best. Then the one whom between you and him is enmity will become as if he is very close familiar.

Surah Al-Ma’idah 13:

13Then, We cursed them for they had broken their covenants and made their hearts hard. They distort the words from their proper/literal meanings. And they have abandoned a significant portion of what they have been advised. You always see a treachery from them, except for a few among them. But, you, pardon them and do not mind. Indeed, Allah likes those who produce good.

Surah Al-Muzzammil 10:

10Be patient over what they say/they will say. And avoid them with good avoidance.

Surah Al-Ghashiyah 21,22:

21,22Now remind, indeed, you are only a reminder. You are not a tyrant over them..

Surah Al-Baqara 109:

109Although the truth has been disclosed to them, many from among the People of the Book wish to turn you to be infidels; the ones who consciously deny the Divinity of Allah and the fact that He is Rabb after you have believed out of their envy in their selves. Despite this, treat them with forgiveness, tolerance until the command of Allah arrives. Indeed, Allah is the One Who is the most competent over everything.

Taking a life is like taking the life of the entire universe before Our Rabb.

Surah Al-Ma’idah 32:

32For these happen, We decreed upon the Israelites: “Indeed, whoever kills a self unless for a self or for a corruption on the earth then it is like he has killed all the people entirely. And whoever causes a self to live, then it is like he has caused all the people to live”. And indeed, Our messengers came to them with clear proofs. Then, most of them are those who transgress on the earth.

Our Rabb (Lord, the Cherisher, the Nurturer, the Sustainer) gives substantial importance to humans’ lives and does everything to protect and rescue them.

Surah Al-An’am 151, 152:

151Say: “Come, I will recite you what your Rabb has tabooed; made untouchable to you”.

Notto associate anything with Him,

to do good to mother and father – treat them good,

not to kill your children out of poverty/being made poor, -We provide for you and them.-

not to approach apparent and concealed of evil,

not to kill a soul which Allah has forbidden except by right, -These are what He brought upon you as a liability so you may use your reason.

- 152And do not approach orphan’s property, -But until he reaches the age that he is able to distinguish between good and evil, you can approach in a way which is best and spend in the appropriate way.-,

weight in justice and equity and give full measure, -We never burden anyone other than what he is able to; other than what is within his capacity.-

Surah Al-Furqan 68-71:

68-71And servants of Rahman [Allah; the One Who shows great mercy on the earth to all living beings that He created] do not invoke any other deity with Allah. They do not kill the soul that Allah has forbidden. – They only kill by right. – And they do not commit unlawful sexual intercourse. – And whoever does these, will meet sin. His punishment will be multiplied on the day of Qiyamat [Resurrection] and he will abide there forever, being humiliated. Except for those who repent, believe and do righteous deeds. Thus, Allah replaces their evil deeds with good. And Allah is very forgiving, very merciful. And whoever repents and does righteous deeds, surely he will return to Allah as his repentance is accepted. –

Surah Al-Isra 33:

33And do not kill a person that Allah has made haram/forbidden except by right. And whoever is killed unjustly, We have given an authority to his relatives. Let him not exceed in killing. – Surely, the one who is killed/the relatives who are to defend his rights are supported. –

This is the announcement of the fact that the life of a person is protected and guaranteed by Allah and that no one can kill any other person through a personal or public decision by way of war except for the factors allowed by Allah.

A believer kills a believer only by mistake; a person does not kill another person deliberately.

Surah An-Nisa 92, 93:

92And it is never for a believer to kill another believer except by mistake. And whoever from among the believers kills a believer by accident/unintentionally, that believer must free a believing slave and provide a compensation to be delivered to the family/heirs of the deceased. –Except for when the family of the deceased gives it up.- In the case that the deceased is from an enemy people while he is a believer, then the one who has killed must free a believing slave. If the deceased is from a people with whom you have a covenant, the one who has killed must provide a compensation to be delivered to the family of the deceased and also free a believing slave. Whoever is not able to do these, he will fast for two consecutive months so his repentance may be accepted by Allah. Allah is the One Who knows best, the One Who is the best law maker.

93 And whoever intentionally [deliberately, on purpose] kills a believer, his recompense is Jahannah [Hell] wherein he will abide eternally. And Allah will be displeased with him, curse him, deprive him of His mercy and He has prepared a great punishment for him.

If two believer groups are aggravated into a war by provocation, other Muslims intervene with them.

Surah Al-Hujurat 9, 10:

9 And if two groups from among the believers are made to battle each other, immediately make peace between them. Should one of them attack the other, fight against the attacking side until they return to the command of Allah. And if it returns, make peace between them with justice and treat in justice and equity. Surely, Allah likes those who treat in justice and equity.

10 Believers are only brothers. Therefore, make peace between your brothers and enter under the guardianship of Allah so you may receive mercy.

The two groups that became subject matter herewith can be two neighbors, people of two villages, two football teams and two countries. When they attempt to kill each other or engage in a war upon a trick, the Muslims around must intervene and explain that they are brothers and sisters, that they are nourishing themselves within the property of Allah just like siblings nourishing themselves within the property of their fathers and that the injustice between them cannot be the reason for them to kill each other.

Why war/battle?

As this is the case, there are types of unthankful people who make others unhappy for the sake of their interests and who benefit from ruining a society:

Surah Al-Adiyat:

1-5Those who run panting, then strike sparks of fire, then raid in the morning, then raise clouds of dust therein, then plunge into the most valuable resources and assets of a community is the evidence that 6indeed, man is very ungrateful to his Rabb, 7and he is definitely witness to this. 8Without a doubt, he is tough because of his love of wealth.

9-11But, do those looters not know that their Rabb is to inform them on the day when what is within the graves is thrown out and what is within the hearts is obtained?

At this point, it will be necessary to dispel and destroy these combatants, the people who will ruin the society in material and spiritual grounds. In sum, it will be necessary to prune the degenerate buds; qital, muqatalah (war/battle; dying- killing) will be mandatory.

The expression of “If Allah had not eliminated and prevented some of the people with other people, all sprouts, buds, fruits on the trees, harvested grains, legumes, thorns in barren lands, all built structures, bazaars and malls; markets, all Salah; support institutions (workplaces; employment and procurement institutions, educational and training facilities and security centers) and all the masjids [school] within which the name of Allah is mentioned frequently would have definitely been demolished..in the 40th Ayah of the Surah Al-Hajj and the expression of “If Allah did not repel some people by some other people, the earth would be corrupted.” in the251st Ayah of the Surah Al-Baqara explain the reason for rendering war legitimate.

We must detail this issue by explaining through this expression. Allah ordered that war/battle can be waged only for getting rid of the people who are combatant [offensive] to Him; who attempt to destroy the principles He has constituted and who try to demolish people and nature by eliminating such principles and that they should be executed to death by way of a trial/judgement.

Surah Al-Ma’idah 33, 34:

33,34The recompense of those who fight against Allah and His Messenger; who have attempted to cause corruption and make chaos on the earth –except for those who return before you prevail over them/capture and overpower them- is none but they should be killed or be driven away from the city life and made to be agricultural laborer in the farms, be made to work in stone pits or be cut you off the covenants; commitments or be exiled from where they are. This is a humiliation for them on the earth. And a great punishment will be for them in Akhirat [Afterlife] as well. And know well that Allah is the One Who forgives much and shows great mercy.

The ”muharaba” stated here and waged against Allah and His Prophet was explained as “ fitna” in other verses. The fitna means “return to the denial that they push and losing the homeland.” It was highlighted that fitna is severer than killing a person.

Surah Al-Baqara 191:

191And kill them wherever you seize them, expel them from where they have expelled. And averting people from the religion; driving them to associate others with Allah, to consciously deny the Divinity of Allah and the fact that He is Rabb is more severe than killing. Do not battle by Masjid al-Haram; the untouchable theological education center unless they battle you. If they battle you despite this, kill them immediately. Thus is the punishment of the infidels; those who consciously deny the Divinity of Allah and the fact that He is Rabb.

Because of that, our Rabb [Lord, the Cherisher, the Nurturer, the Sustainer] gave the order of muqatalah; killing and dying; until the sedition disappears.

Surah Al-Baqara 193:

193And battle them until there is no activity of averting people from the religion; driving them to associate others with Allah, to consciously deny the Divinity of Allah and the fact that He is Rabb and the religion belongs only to Allah. But, if they cease, animosity will be for none except for those who treat themselves unjustly.

Surah Al-Anfal 39:

39And fight them until the activity of averting people from the religion is no more and the religion belongs only to Allah. And if they cease, let it be known that Allah is the One Who sees best what they do.

We can explain Islam’s justification of war/battle only as “fitna (activity of averting people from the religion)” too.

We see an example of this in the Surah Al-Kahf (60- 82nd Ayah). When our Rabb assigned Moses to take the Israelites out of Egypt by killing Pharaoh by drowning him in the water, Moses had been in depression because of the qualms of conscience caused by a murder he committed previously. In the travel he had in order to get rid of the depression, he met a Scholar to whom Allah gave his grace (a messenger whose name is not stated)and learned from him that those who wage war against Allah must be killed, and he witnessed the killing of such person.

Resolution for war is taken by the public authority in the name of Allah. Any Muslim or a group cannot declare war/battle himself/herself on behalf of Islam whenever he/she wishes, commit a terrorist action or conduct a suicide attack by making a decision by himself/herself. As it is known, in Meccan conditions, Muslims were not allowed for war/battle without being organized in state level and they were not held liable for war.

It is cruelty and terror that some particular persons and institutions do not allow the people who do not comply with their own beliefs and behaviors to have the right to live and that they use of some inhuman actions in order to harm them.

Unfortunately, as one third of the Qur’an orders reason, consideration, observation and research; so-called Muslims, who neglect these duties, did not have any method but forced indoctrination. It is a famous story. An illiterate shepherd was asked whether he was able to prove the existence of Allah, he proudly answered that he could. As the people who were present there were sure that the illiterate shepherd could not do this, they asked how he could do. He showed the stick in his hand. “I can prove it with this,” he answered. And, this time, he answered the question of “how?” as below:

  • I would beat a person who denies Allah, I would beat him with this stick until he says “Allah exists and One”, he said.

So this is the portrait of those people who pretend to be Muslims today. Hence, everywhere in the world, the people who pretend to be Muslims and real Muslims have come to be acknowledged as the murderer and terrorists shedding blood and inciting disorder.

Despite this situation, our Rabb allows for a war/battle and gives His order for a war in special cases. He grants such consent regarding the conditions in which the war takes place:

Surah Al-Hajj 39-41:

39-41Those whom are waged war have been allowed to fight since they have been treated unjustly; driven out from their lands without right only because they have said “Our Rabb is Allah!”.

And surely, Allah is the One Who is the most competent to lead them to victory. If Allah had not eliminated and prevented some of the people with other people, all sprouts, buds, fruits on the trees, harvested grains, legumes, thorns in barren lands, all built structures, bazaars and malls; markets, all Salah; support institutions (workplaces; employment and procurement institutions, educational and training facilities and security centers) and all the masjids [school] within which the name of Allah is mentioned frequently would have definitely been demolished.

Allah will definitely help those who help Him -who establish Salah [establish and maintain the institutions that support financially and spiritually; enlighten the community], who give zaqah/tax, instruct that which is acceptable for all and who forbid with Wahy [Revelation] and common sense that which is considered evil, if We make them have authority and home-. Surely, Allah is very powerful, almighty. And only to Him belongs the consequence of all matters

Surah At-Tawbah 13- 15:

13Will you not fight against a people who broke their oaths, determined to expel the Messenger from his land and began to fight you first time? Or do you fear them in awe with respect, love, knowledge? If you are believers, Allah is the One Who is more worthy for you to fear in awe with respect, love, knowledge.

14,15Battle them so Allah may punish them through your hands and disgrace them. And He may make you victorious over them and heal the hearts of a believing people, remove the hatred of their hearts. Allah accepts the repentance of whom He wills. And Allah is the One Who knows very well, the One Who is the best law maker, the One Who precludes corruption best/makes incorruptible.

Surah An-Nisa 75, 76:

75What is the matter with you that you do not fight for weakened men, women and children who say: “O our Rabb! Take us out of this land, people of which treat themselves unjustly, appoint for us a familiar who is protector, guide from Yourself and appoint a good helper from Yourself”?

76Those who have believed fight for the cause of Allah. And the infidels; those who consciously deny the Divinity of Allah and the fact that He is Rabb fight for taghut. Therefore, fight against the companions, helpers of satan. Surely, very weak is the plot of satan..

In the expression of What is the matter with you that you do not fight for weakened men, women and children who say: “O our Rabb [Lord, the Cherisher, the Nurturer, the Sustainer]! Take us out of this land, people of which treat themselves unjustly, send us a protector, guide from Yourself”? in Surah An-Nisa 75th Ayah, a justification for war is being explained. Accordingly, it is necessary to run to help of those poverty-stricken people whose freedoms of religion and belief were restricted by the cruel people/those people who associate others with Allah, and beg to Allah as O our Rabb [Lord, the Cherisher, the Nurturer, the Sustainer]! Take us out of this land, people of which treat themselves unjustly, send us a protector, guide from Yourself”?It is an obligation of the Ummah/Muslim people to save the believers who are subject to cruelty and captivity.

Surah Al-Baqara 190:

190 Fight those for the cause of Allah who fight you; die and kill. And do not transgress. Surely, Allah does not like the transgressors.

Surah Al-Baqara 194:

194 The prohibited month is for the haram/forbidden month. And all that which must be obeyed/binding provisions are for each other. Then whoever has attacked you, then attack him in the same way he has attacked you. And enter under the guardianship of Allah. And know that Allah is with those who have entered under the guardianship of Himself.

Surah Al-Baqara 216:

216 And although war is not pleasant for you, it has been given you as a mandatory liability. It is possible that you do not like which is good for you. And it is possible that you like that which is bad, harmful for you. And Allah knows but you do not know.

In Surah Al-Baqara 190, with the expression “And do not transgress. Surely, Allah does not like the transgressors. ”, Allah reminds the important points. The expression of ”…never transgress” in the Ayah prohibits destruction of the territories of the enemies and inflicting harm to the innocent children who do not even know what war is, to women and seniors, to the paralyzed and blind people, to temples, to the trees with or without fruit, to vegetables, fruits, and crops within the territories of the enemies, and to the pet animals in the settlement. And it also prohibits handling of the obtained war booties by soldiers, touching to the chastity of the women and girls, killing of the wounded soldiers of the enemy who cannot fight, pursuing those who flee leaving their weapons and fire guns to them from behind and torturing the captives.

In addition, those who ask for mercy are under protection:

Surah An-Nisa 94:

94 O you who have believed! When you set out for a campaign for the cause of Allah, investigate meticulously. And do not say to the one who greets you: “You are not a believer”, considering the conveniences of the worldly life. There are many booties with Allah. You were like that before and Allah made you a favor. Therefore, investigate meticulously. Surely, Allah is aware of what you do..

The battles made during the time of the Prophet were waged completely in compliance with these verses on behalf of Allah in order to confront those who waged war against Allah and for the sake of fitna. For example:

The Battle of Badr was fought due to the cooperation between the hypocrites in Medina and Meccan polytheists to kill the Prophet and annihilate the religion of Islam.

The Battle of Uhud is a defense battle against those who wanted to take revenge of the defeat in Badr.

The Battle of the Trench is a war waged for defense in their own lands and cities against the collective attacks of the Jews, hypocrites and polythesits/those who associate others with Allahto destroy the Muslims.

Conquest of Mecca was fought for the Muslims to safeguard themselves due to the fact that Kuraish broke the Piece Treaty in Hudaybiyah. It was not waged to make any person accept the religion or for pillaging of commodities. The issue is explained in the Surah Al-Tawba in detail.

The Expedition of Tabuk was about the fact that the Syrian Christians wrote a letter to Heraclius, the Emperor of Byzantium, and stated that Mohammed had died, the Muslims were destitute in famine and poverty, and it was the right time to convert them, to include them to their own religion, or to annihilate them if required if troops can be sent to them.

Upon this event, the Emperor of Byzantium sends a 40.000-person troop against the Muslims. Some Arab tribes cooperate with the Byzantines as well.

The situation is notified to the Prophet in Medina. The believers are invited to gird their loins. Everyone; women, men, poor ones and wealthy ones urge to contribute as much as their means. The Expedition of Tabukis this kind of defense-oriented campaign.

Killing for the path of Allah

As it is known, battle has two sides as killing and dying. In terms of killing, our Rabb orders not to go beyond the limit/transgress and reveals a point more expressly, which is the position of the people that kill:

Surah Al-Anfal 17:

17 And you did not kill them but it was Allah who killed them. And you did not throw when you threw but it was Allah who threw. And so He might test the believers with a good trial. Surely, Allah is the One Who hears best, knows best.

Allah, by saying, “you did not kill them but it was Allah who killed them. And you did not throw when you threw but it was Allah who threw” attributed killing to Himself and pointed out that Muslim soldiers cannot be qualified as “murderer” or “malefactor”. As it is understood from this fact, in legitimate wars; in the wars envisaged and consented by Allah and by the resolution of jurisdiction; killing, as done in the name of Allah, does not make the killer an offender, a murderer and a cruel person.

Neither Our Prophet nor any of the genuine Muslim administrators who followed him waged wars/battles to have others believe in their religion or to pillage. The war booties earned in a battle were qualified as “anfal (tip, bonus)” and allocated to public, not to the veterans. This is explained in the Surah Al-Anfal and Al-Hashr in details.

Our Rabb has prohibited converting any person or society into the religion by force. He bestowed freedom of belief and opinion to everyone. There are tens of verses in this regard in the Qur’an. As can be seen from the following verses, purpose of war is to gain Allah’s consent and to eliminate fitna.

Surah An-Nisa 71- 76:

71O you who have believed! Take your precautions and set out against them in small troops or all together.

72Surely, some among you linger behind. And when a disaster hits you, he says: “Indeed, Allah has favored me so I was not with them as a witness”.

73But if a bounty from Allah comes to you, he will say as if there had been no affection between him and you: “If only i had been with them and reached a great success!”.

74Then let those who sell the simple worldly life for Akhirat [Afterlife] fight for the cause of Allah. Whoever fights for the cause of Allah and is killed or achieves victory; then We will give him a great reward.

75What is the matter with you that you do not fight for weakened men, women and children who say: “O our Rabb! Take us out of this land, people of which treat themselves unjustly, appoint for us a familiar who is protector, guide from Yourself and appoint a good helper from Yourself”?

76Those who have believed fight for the cause of Allah. And the infidels; those who consciously deny the Divinity of Allah and the fact that He is Rabb fight for taghut. Therefore, fight against the companions, helpers of satan. Surely, very weak is the plot of satan.

For the believers, it essential not to have war; dying and killing but to have a dissuasive force:

Surah Al-Anfal 60:

60 And collect any kind of force as you can against them and prepare war horses so you may terrify those who are enemy to Allah, your enemies and lower ones than those whom Allah knows but you do not. And whatever you spend for the cause of Allah will be paid to you fully and you will not be treated unjustly.

Surah An-Nisa 71:

71 O you who have believed! Take your precautions and set out against them in small troops or all together.

Surah An-Nisa 102:

102 And when you are among those who are on a campaign and provide training and education for them, let some of them stand/join the training with you. And let them take their weapons with them. And when they have received enough knowledge and are convinced, let them stand behind you. Then, let another group who have not yet received education and training come to join you for training and let them take precautions and carry their weapons with them. The infidels; those who consciously deny the Divinity of Allah and the fact that He is Rabb wish that you become negligent of your weapons and belongings so they may suddenly raid upon you. If a trouble reaches you from the rain or you become ill, there will be no blame upon you to leave your weapons. Take your precautions as well. Surely, Allah has prepared a humiliating punishment for the infidels; those who consciously deny the Divinity of Allah and the fact that He is Rabb.

In Surah Al-Anfal 60, all the believers and all the times are addressed and it was said,And collect any kind of force as you can against them and prepare war horses so you may terrify those who are enemy to Allah, your enemies and lower ones than those whom Allah knows but you do not. And whatever you spend for the cause of Allah will be paid to you fully and you will not be treated unjustly. And, thus; a military strategy was determined for the believers.

In the verse, first, “And collect any kind of force as you can against them “ is said to order procurement of all kinds of military weapons and material and by saying, “Prepare the war horses”,war horses” were underlined. As it is known, best war vehicle in the time of the revelation of the Qur’an was a horse. Hence, from the word of “horse” in the verse, today’s most advanced war weapons like warplanes, tanks, submarines, guided missile or even an Atomic bomb must be understood.

It is understood that with the expression of enemies of Allah, your enemies in the verse, “Those who associate others with Allah/polytheists, Jews and all the enemies of Islam” and with the expression of whom Allah knows but you do not, “hypocrites and distant enemies” are meant through the instrumentality of the verses of At-Tawbah 101 and Ali Imran 118.

Muslims must have all kinds of equipments and get over the war with the least possible casualties. This issue was mentioned in the 243- 253rd verses of the Surah Al-Baqara. Here, it is stated that David brought the war to end by killing Goliath and no casualties were incurred and pointed out that the Muslims must battle through this method. Detailed explanation of the war in question is in the 1st Samuel, 17: 153section of the Old Testament. Qur’an confirms this section.

As can be understood from here, a battle is won by reason and education. A single reasoned and trained person is able to change the outcome of a battle. The message Allah wants to deliver the believers in this passage is this. Crowd and vulgar power must not be relied on, war tactics must be developed, and David must be taken as an example.Today, it must have been the Muslims, not the infidels, who control a battle/war from thousands of kilometers and acquire victory without casualties of commodities and lives by clicking on a single key!

War in the haram/prohibited months and prohibited region

One of the biggest values of Islam is the fact that it prohibits war in the haram/forbidden months and considers this among one of the biggest sins.

In the Arab tradition, prohibited months and a prohibited region weredetermined in order to ensure a safe and sound hajj[Pilgrimage/high theological education] and transport during the period of hajj[Pilgrimage/high theological education]. And in these months and the region, certainly no war could be waged. In these verses, it is ordered to the believers that if there becomes an attack for war in these months and in this region to the believers, they should not follow this tradition.

On that day, the surrounding Arabic tribes were visiting the Masjid al-Haram for training and education.

The message that these verses give us is that wars must by no means be fought in the manner that they would interrupt education and training in these periods and educational areas as well as schools that they would affect the security of the educational places and roads, that they would prevent the teachers and students to carry out their works and that they would have the teachers and students participate in the war.

However, during the period of education, also in the prohibited months, if the believers are attacked, they will have to defend.

Surah Al-Baqara 194:

194 The prohibited month is for the haram/forbidden month. And all that which must be obeyed/binding provisions are for each other. Then whoever has attacked you, then attack him in the same way he has attacked you. And enter under the guardianship of Allah. And know that Allah is with those who have entered under the guardianship of Himself.

Many arrangements regarding domestic law on war/battle are available in the Surah Al-Baqara, Surah Ali Imran, Surah An-Nisa, Surah Al-Anfal, Surah At-Tawbah, Surah Al-Ahzab, Surah Al-Mumtahinah, Surah Mohammed and Surah Al-Hashr in detail. It is recommended to the readers who are interested in the issue to read the verses in the mentioned surat.

DYING ON THE PATH OF ALLAH

Dying on the path of Allah brings both Allah’s appreciation and substantial benefits.

SurahAl-i Imran 169-171:

169-171 And never think of those who were killed in the cause of Allah as dead. Rather, they are alive, being provided with that which Allah gives of his bounties with their Rabb. They wish to give to those who have not joined them yet the good tidings that there will be no fear for them and they will not grieve. They wish to give the good tidings of a favor, reward from Allah and that Allah will definitely not let rewards of the believers be lost.

Surah Al-Baqara 154:

154 And do not say about those who are killed in the path of Allah, “They are dead”. Rather, they are alive. But you do not perceive.

Surah An-Nisa 74:

74 Then let those who sell the simple worldly life for Akhirat [Afterlife] fight for the cause of Allah. Whoever fights for the cause of Allah and is killed or achieves victory; then We will give him a great reward.

Surah Muhammad 4-6:

4-6 When you meet/battle those who consciously deny the Divinity of Allah and the fact that He is Rabb, strike their necks at once…/battle to death. And when you prevail over them, secure the bond/make strong decisions. And when the war lays down its burdens and it is over, release them free either without compensation or with ransom. Thus, if Allah had willed, He would surely have maintained justice by recompensing them. But this is so to test you with each other. And as for those who are killed/kill/fight in the path of Allah; Allah will never waste their deeds. Allah will guide them, amend their conditions and admit them to Jannah [Heaven/Paradise] which He has made known to them.

Surah Al-i Imran 195:

195 And, their Rabb responded them: “Surely, I never let the deed of any worker among you get lost, whether male or female –that you all are same-. Therefore, those who emigrated, were driven out from their homes, were harmed in My cause, who fought and are killed; I will definitely remove their evil deeds from them and admit them into the gardens of Jannah [Heaven/Paradise], underneath of which rivers flow, as a reward from Allah. And Allah is the One Who has the good of the reward with Him”.

Surah Al-i Imran 157,158:

157If you are killed or die in the path of Allah, then a forgiveness and mercy from Allah is indeed better than what they accumulate.

158Surely, whether you die or are killed, you will certainly be gathered to Allah.

Surah At-Tawbah 111, 112:

111,112 Surely, Allah has purchased from those believers who repent, worship, praise, travel, acknowledge the oneness of Allah, submit, command the good that is accepted by all, forbid the evil deeds, preserve the limits of Allah their lives and wealth for that they will have Jannah [Heaven/Paradise]. They battle in the cause of Allah; then they kill and are killed. This is the true promise of Allah that is in the Torah, the Bible and the Qur’an. And who is the one who is more faithful to his promise more than Allah? Then, rejoice over the business you did. And this is what the great salvation is. And give to the believers the good tidings!

Surah Al-Hajj 58, 59:

58,59 And those who emigrate for the cause of Allah and then are killed or die; surely, Allah will provide for them a good provision. And surely, Allah is certainly the One Who is the best of providers. He surely will admit them into a place where they will be pleased. And surely, Allah is the One Who knows very well, forbears much.

As a result, both dying and killing are crimes, other than the conditions where our Rabb consents toward His own path; they are not the things that Muslims would do.

WHO IS A SHAHEED?

The word of “ شهيد Shaheed” is hyperbolism “verbal noun” derived from “ ش ه د shd (shaadat )” root and its meaning is “The one who witnesses at utmost/advanced level.” “ عليمalaim” is used for the person who knows well if knowledge is absolutely attributed to knowledge; if attributed to confidential things “ خبيرhabyr” is used for the person who knows well; and if attributed to clear, exposed things, “ شهيدshaheed” is used for the person who knows them well. (LISAN-UL ARAB)

The word of “ شهادةshaadat” which is the infinitive of the word means ”witnessing” in Turkish. An ordinary person who knows the obvious things is called “ شاهدshaaheed” and a person who knows them in most advanced level is callled “ شهيدshaheed”. This word is one of Allah’s first degree titles in an exact sense, one of Allah’s titles, “ash Shaheed”. This is stated in the Qur’an 55 times, 35 of which are singular, 2 of which are tasniyah (binary) and 18 of which are plural. We also see in the Qur’an that this name is used for Allah, messengers and people.

What we will handle here is the expression of “Shaheed”, which is used as the “Person who dies for Allah’s sake on the path to Him. The Qur’an does not qualify the persons who die for Allah’s sake on the path to Him as “Shaheed”. This expression does not receive approval from the Qur’an. Our Rabb uses the expression of “The persons killed on the way/for the cause of Allah.”

If such qualification will be interpreted for humans from the Qur’an’ verses, this must be done by means of these verses:

Surah Al-i Imran 18:

18Allah, forces of the nature/harbinger Ayat and those knowledgeable ones that maintain justice and equity have witnessed that there is no deity except Allah. There is no god but the One Who is the most exalted, the most powerful, the most honorable, the invincible/the subduer, the best law maker.

Surah An-Nisa 69:

69And whoever obeys Allah and the Messenger, those are with the ones upon whom Allah bestowed His favor of the prophets, the truthful ones, the advanced witnesses of the existence and divinity of Allah and the righteous ones. And how good are those as companions! 70This is a bounty from Allah. Allah is sufficient as the One Who knows best.

When these verses are taken into account, it will be understood that the praiseworthy “Shaheed (witness at most advanced level)” is “scholars acting in justice.” The teqid and tahqiq (the fact that the sentence is a noun clause and “ أنّ enne” preposition in its Arabic version) in the verse, in the expression of the fact that “Surely, there is no god but Allah” demonstrate that the witnessing here is an advanced level of witnessing, which is “being a Shaheed”.

It is because they are qualified in other verses of the Qur’an (Surah Al-Mu’min 7- 9) as those who carry the Greatest Throne; those who teach and deliver the word of Allah”.

And it will be seen that Our Rabb invites believers and the humans in the following verses to be “scholars acting in justice”.

Surah An-Nisa 135:

135 O you who have believed! Be those who maintain/seek justice and equity as the ones who testify for Allah even if it is against yourselves, your parents and relatives. Whether rich or poor, know that Allah is closer to both. Do not follow your vain, transitory desire in order to be able to establish justice. If you distort or turn away, know that Allah is definitely aware of what you do.

Surah Al-Ma’idah 8:

8 O you who have believed! Be witnesses who maintain justice and equity for Allah. And do not let your hatred for a people drag you to commit injustice. Be just because being just is closer to enter under the guardianship of Allah. Enter under the guardianship of Allah. Surely, Allah is aware of what you do.

Humans corrupted the concept of martyrdom (being Shaheed) and separated it into the sections like the martyr of the world and the Akhirat (afterlife), genuine martyr, judicial martyr and brought many judgments regarding each of them. Later on, fell through the cracks], and many types of martyrdom like beer martyr, task martyr, revolution martyr, stage martyr etc. were made up. For example;

It was accepted that “Those who get drowned in water, burn in fire, remain under the ruins of a collapsed building, die of an infectious disease like plague, die of an inflammatory disease like malaria, die whilst following the paths of science, die of a lung disease, die while delivering a child or at the postpartum period, die of headache, die of stomachache, die of job accidents while working in pursuit of halal/permissible earning of the subsistence of their families, die on Friday night, die as expatriates in other countries, are killed of inviting all to good, instruct good deeds that are accepted by all, preclude evil via revelation and common sense; die by falling down off animals, die due to sting of a poisonous animal, die due to neck broken as a result of falling off the roof of their houses, die because of a boulder falling onto them, die while defending their religious fellows, die defending their innocent neighbors and die for the reasons like scorpion and snake sting…etc. are martyrs ”.

By creating conceptual contradictions among the Muslims, by using the words with different relational meaning, outside of their original meaning, the Muslims were dragged towards wrong paths. It is necessary not to abandon the Qur’an’s guidance.

It must be remembered that there can be neither a شاهد Shaaheed (ordinary witness) nor شهيد Shaheed (absolutely perfect witness) from a dead person.

Hakkı Yılmaz

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